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今天给大家带来的是一则阅读材料,最近据美国大学一项研究显示,好的心态比单纯的健康饮食更能帮助人们减肥。

在网上大家应该看过不少各种减肥的建议。这其中不乏有很多未经证实或者没有效果的的建议。笔者根据网上流传的一些减肥建议,整理出这9大减肥的错误认识,并根据科学的知识帮助你理解清楚。

Weight loss can sometimes seem impossible because even after hard-won
success, the pounds can creep back.

Mindfulness is more effective than simply trying to eat healthy, a study
claims.
据一项最新研究显示,好的心态比单纯的健康饮食更有效。

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减肥有时似乎是不可能的任务,因为即使好不容易瘦身成功,也可能出现反弹。

Eighty people joined a study by North Carolina State University, with
half designing their own diet, and half engaging in daily meditation.
北卡罗来纳州立大学进行了一项有80人参加的研究,其中一半参与者坚持一份设计好的饮食,而另一半人则每日进行冥想。

以下是关于减肥的9大错误认识:

“Ninety-five percent of people who embark on a diet on their own will
fail or gain their weight back at the six- or 12-month mark,” Dr. David
Prologo, an interventional radiologist at Emory University School of
Medicine in Atlanta, said in a news release video. “The reason for this
is the body’s backlash to the calorie restriction.”

The results revealed the mindfulness group lost an average of 4.2lbs –
seven times the other group’s average weight loss of 0.6lbs.
结果显示冥想组的人体重平均瘦了4.2磅——是另一组人(0.6磅)的7倍。

一、所有卡路里都是一样的

亚特兰大州埃默里大学医学院介入放射学专家大卫?普罗洛戈在一段新闻视频中称:“95%依靠节食自己减肥的人都失败了,或在6到12个月时出现反弹。这是因为人体对限制卡路里摄入出现了强烈反应。”

It is a staggering testament to the power of meditation, researchers
say, as the nation fights an obesity crisis.
研究人员表示,这项研究证明了冥想的惊人力量——尤其是在目前美国肥胖人群数量高居不下的情况下。

卡路里是能量的测量单位。所有的卡路里都有相同的能量,但这并不是说所有的卡路里来源对你的体重都有相同的影响。

Prologo recently conducted a trial that looked deeper into the issue,
targeting the “hunger nerve” and its possible connection to one’s
ability to lose weight and keep it off.

Overweight and obesity increase the risk of chronic diseases including
hypertension, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.
超重和肥胖增加了包括高血压、2型糖尿病、以及心血管疾病等慢性疾病的风险。

不同的食物经过不同的代谢途径,对饥饿感和改善体重、调节激素的影响也大不相同。例如,根据吸收的难度,蛋白质的卡路里与脂肪或碳水中的卡路里是不一样的,用蛋白质代替一些碳水和脂肪可以促进新陈代谢、降低你的食欲,同时可以改善体重、调节激素功能[1]。

普罗洛戈最近进行了一次试验,深入研究这个问题,把研究对象对准“饥饿神经”及其与人体减肥和维持体重的能力之间可能存在的关联。

A ‘small changes approach’ is one possible weight management strategy,
which emphasises the combination of diet and physical activity and
suggests reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure
to prevent weight gain and or promote weight reduction.
而一个“小转变”就是一种可能的体重管理策略,这种转变强调饮食和身体运动相结合,并建议减少能量摄入、加大能量消耗,从而防止增重、助力减肥。

总结:并不是所有的卡路里来源对你的健康和体重都有相同影响。

The “hunger nerve” — also known as the posterior vagal trunk — is a
branch of the larger vagus nerve that works on the heart, lungs and GI
system. When your stomach is empty, the nerve signals your brain that
you’re hungry.

In recent years, mindful eating – focusing on what you see and feel in
the moment to increasing one’s awareness – has been introduced as a
possible strategy for weight management.
近些年来,“心态饮食法(mindful
eating)”已被引入作为一种可能的体重管理策略,该方法强调专注于眼前看到和感觉到的东西,从而提高自己的意识。

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“饥饿神经”,又称迷走神经后干,是大迷走神经的一个分支,影响心脏、肺和胃肠系统。当你空肚子时,“饥饿神经”会告诉大脑你饿了。

The main purpose of the study was to examine the effectiveness of a
program called Eat Smart, Move More, Weigh Less (ESMMWL) to increase
awareness of eating habits.
这项研究是主要目的是检测一个被称之为“精食、多动、减重(Eat Smart, Move
More, Weigh Less)”项目的有效性,该项目力图提高人们对饮食习惯的意识。

二、减肥药可以帮助你减肥

By freezing the nerve, the hunger signal was shut down.

Researchers also wanted to investigate the relationship between mindful
eating and weight loss.
研究人员们还想对心态饮食法和减肥之间的关系进行研究。

减肥药的市场很大,许多公司声称他们的产品效果显著,但事实上没有人能从中收获好的成效。然而有些人却始终坚信或者觉得减肥药是有效果的!不知道各位了解这个心理现象不?恐怕这其中主要的原因是“安慰剂效应”[2]。即很多人希望,也相信减肥药能带来减肥效果,因此他们会觉得有效果!

通过冷冻神经,饥饿信号被关闭。

ESMMWL was developed by researchers at North Carolina State University
and North Carolina Division of Public Health.
“精食、多动、减重”项目由北卡州立大学和北卡卫生部共同发起。

所谓“安慰剂效应”,指的是在不让病人知情的情况下服用完全没有药效的假药,但病人却得到了和真药一样甚至更好的效果。这种似是而非的现象在医学和心理学研究中都并不鲜见。(来源百科词条由“科普中国”百科科学词条编写与应用工作项目审核)

The experiment was meant solely to test the safety of the procedure, and
the team ran the study on only 10 people. All were overweight, between
the ages of 27 to 66 and had body mass indexes (BMIs) ranging from 30
and 37 (those stretch from “moderately” to “severely” obese). Eight of
the 10 participants were women.

It hinges on the idea of creating a structure that will help
participants change behaviors that have caused them to gain weight, or
prevent weight loss.
该项目提出了这一理念,即创建一个结构,帮助参与者改变导致自己肥胖、或者不利减肥的习惯。

总而言之,大多数减肥药(即使用最好的减肥药)对减肥的效果也并不明显,就算有效果,也只能帮你减轻一点体重(实际上是丢失水分或排空肠胃)。

这个实验仅仅是为了检验这项手术的安全性,研究对象只有10人,其中8人是女性。他们的年龄在27岁到66岁之间,身体质量指数在30到37之间(从“轻微”肥胖到“严重”肥胖),所有人都超重了。

Participants take the class from a live instructor at the same time each
week on a computer or mobile device.
每周同一时间,参与者都会通过电脑或者手机接受一位教师的指导。

总结:大多数减肥药都是没有作用的。顶多只会帮你减轻一点体重(丢失水分或排空肠胃),而不是帮你起到减脂的作用,要记住减脂与减重是两种概念。

注:身体质量指数是衡量人体胖瘦程度的一个常用指标,其计算方法是体重(千克)除以身高(米)的平方,通常认为数值30及以上为肥胖。

To measure their level of mindfulness, researchers got each of the
participants to fill out the Mindful Eating Questionnaire, a 28-point
survey that assesses five domains of mindful eating.
为了测量他们的心态水平,研究人员让每个参与者都填写了“心态饮食问卷”,该问卷用28个问题从5个领域对参与者的心态饮食进行了评估。

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At the end of the procedure, the probe was removed and a small bandage
was applied to the skin, with patients going home the same day.

Mindful eating includes paying attention to hunger and fullness cues,
planning meals and snacks, eating as a singular activity as opposed to
eating while doing other activities, and paying special attention to how
food tastes.
心态饮食法包括注意饥饿和饱足感的原因、规划饮食和零食、将饮食作为一项专注性活动而不同时做其他事情、以及特别留心食物的味道等。

三、变胖只因你意志不够坚定

手术结束时,探针会被取出,在皮肤上贴一条小绷带,患者当天就可以回家。

It may also include having just one or two bites of special higher
calorie foods and savoring the flavor.
心态饮食法还建议不要摄入过多高热量食物,只吃一两口尝尝味道就行。

肥胖是一种非常复杂的疾病,说肥胖只是你意志不够坚定而造成的,这是不准确的,肥胖有几十个甚至上百个致病因素。许多基因变量都与肥胖有关,且有些疾病如甲减、抑郁症等都可能会伴有变胖的风险[3]。

The researchers saw the patients again seven, 45 and 90 days after the
procedure. Because it was a phase 1 trial, primarily looking for
negative side effects, the technical success rate was 100 percent, there
were no procedure-related complications and no adverse events on which
to follow up.

The trial lasted 15 weeks.
这项实验一共持续了15周。

当然,在我们的身体中,虽然有很多激素和生物因素可以起到调节体重的作用。但在肥胖人群身上,这些功能往往都是不正常的,这使得减肥和保持健康体重变得更加困难[4]。例如对瘦素产生抗性是肥胖的主要原因[5]皇家88平台,。瘦素本应该告诉你的大脑:身体已经储存了足够的脂肪,但如果你对瘦素有高抵抗力,那你的大脑会认为你在挨饿给你传递饥饿信号。

研究人员在手术后7天、45天和90天再次观察患者。由于这是一个初步试验,主要是为了研究冷冻神经的副作用,技术成功率为100%,没有出现与手术相关的并发症,也没有后续的不良反应。

The 28 participants that completed ESMMWL lost an average of 4.2lbs. The
rest lost around 0.6lbs.
完成“精食、多动、减重”项目的参与者一共瘦了4.2磅,其他人瘦了0.6磅。

瘦素给你传导饥饿信号后,想要保持意志坚定少吃东西,这是极其困难的。当然,这并不意味就要束手就擒,减肥依然是可行的,这里只是对于部分人来说比较困难而已。

Though they weren’t really looking at weight effects at this stage,
patients said they had a decreased appetite at each clinic appointment,
and there was an average weight loss of 3.6 percent. Additionally, all
of the participants’ BMI numbers came down about 13.9 percent. There was
no mention of how long any effects on the nerve might last.

And participants who completed ESMMWL had a significantly larger
increase in their mindfulness scores than those in the waitlist control
group.
而和对比组相比,完成了该项目的参与者在心态测试中的得分要高得多。

总结:肥胖是一种非常复杂的疾病,导致肥胖的因素有很多,如遗传、内分泌和环境因素。因此,意志不坚定不是导致肥胖唯一原因。

虽然研究人员在这一阶段并没有真正研究冷冻神经对体重的影响,但每次诊疗时,患者都表示食欲有所下降,而他们的平均体重减轻了3.6%。此外,所有参与者的身体质量指数下降了约13.9%。研究并没有提及“冷冻神经”的影响可能持续多久。

‘Results suggest that there is a beneficial association between mindful
eating and weight loss,’ the authors wrote in the study.
作者们在研究中写道:“结果证明心态饮食法和减肥之间存在着有益的联系。”

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