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This is an odd admission for a psychiatrist to make, but I’ve never been
very good at sitting still. I’m antsy in my chair and jump at any
opportunity to escape it. When I’m trying to work out a difficult
problem, I often stand and move about the office.

Keeping Perspective: The Role of the Hippocampus

Sitting at your desk all day or on your sofa watching TV could make you
stupid, scientists have suggested.

一个精神科医生说这个显得挺奇怪的,但我从不擅长于安稳坐着。在椅子上的我总是坐立不安,能逃则逃。当我想解决一个困难的问题时,我通常会站起来,在办公室里走动。

保持远见:海马体的作用

科学家指出,终日坐在桌前或者坐在沙发上看电视会让你变傻。

We’ve known for a while that sitting for long stretches of every day has
myriad health consequences, like a higher risk of heart disease and
diabetes, that culminate in a higher mortality rate. But now a new study
has found that sitting is also bad for your brain. And it might be the
case that lots of exercise is not enough to save you if you’re a couch
potato the rest of the time.

In a healthy brain, the amygdala works in conjunction with a structure
adjacent to it in the temporal lobe called thehippocampus(seeFigure
1.4).

Researchers have discovered those with a sedentary lifestyle have a
smaller brain region important in forming memories.

我们早就知道,每天长时间地坐着对健康会有许多影响,比如,心脏病和糖尿病的风险会更高,最终导致更高的死亡率。但现在,一项新研究证明了坐姿对你的大脑也有害。如果你的其余时间都坐在沙发上,那么可能大量的运动也不足以拯救你。

在健康的大脑中,杏仁核与颞叶相邻的结构相结合,称为海马体。

研究人员发现,那些习惯久坐的人的大脑中负责形成记忆的区域更小。

A study published last week, conducted by Dr. Prabha Siddarth at the
University of California at Los Angeles, showed that sedentary behavior
is associated with reduced thickness of the medial temporal lobe, which
contains the hippocampus, a brain region that is critical to learning
and memory.

The hippocampus is a crucial and intriguing part of the your brain
because of its multiple roles. It …

The study, by researchers at the University of California at Los
Angeles, adds to a growing list about the dangers of sitting for too
long.

加州大学洛杉矶分校(University of California at Los
Angeles)的普拉巴.希达斯(Prabha
Siddarth)博士进行的一项研究表明,久坐行为与大脑内颞叶的厚度减少有关,大脑内颞叶中含有的海马体是学习和记忆的关键区域。该研究于上周发表。

海马体的多重功能使它在大脑中处于关键的位置。

长期久坐的危害有很多,洛杉矶加利福尼亚大学的研究人员开展的这项研究又揭示了久坐的一个新危害。

The researchers asked a group of 35 healthy people, ages 45 to 70, about
their activity levels and the average number of hours each day spent
sitting and then scanned their brains with M.R.I. They found that the
thickness of their medial temporal lobe was inversely correlated with
how sedentary they were; the subjects who reported sitting for longer
periods had the thinnest medial temporal lobes.

• Constructs conscious, autobiographical memories.

An array of evidence has already linked the bad habit to heart disease,
diabetes, several forms of cancer and an early death in recent years.

研究人员向35名年龄在45到70岁之间的健康人士询问了他们的活动水平和每天坐着的平均小时数,然后使用MRI对他们的大脑进行了扫描。研究人员发现,他们大脑内颞叶的厚度与他们久坐的程度负相关;报告自己坐着的时间较长的研究对象大脑内颞叶最薄。

构建意识及自传体记忆

近些年有大量证据显示,久坐这一坏习惯和心脏病、糖尿病、几种癌症和早逝有关。

The implication is that the more time you spend in a chair the worse it
is for your brain health, resulting in possible impairment in learning
and memory.

注:自传体记忆指对个人复杂生活事件的混合记忆,与记忆的自我体验紧密相联。

But the new research, derived from 35 participants, suggests sitting for
too long could even boost the risk of dementia.

这意味着,你在椅子上坐的时间越久,就越不利于你的大脑健康,可能会导致学习和记忆受损。

• Helps to put emotional reactions in context of time and place.

新研究调查了35名参与者,结果显示,久坐甚至会增加患老年痴呆症的风险。

Of course, the study cannot prove that this link is causal. It’s
possible that people with pre-existing cognitive problems might just be
more sedentary. Still, the researchers screened the subjects to rule out
major medical and psychiatric disorders, so this explanation is
unlikely.

有助于在时间和地点场景下进行情绪反应。

Those with the lazy lifestyles had less grey matter in the medial
temporal lobe (MTL) – even if they went for regular brisk walks, cycle
rides or jogs.

当然,这项研究不能证明这种联系的因果性。前期存在认知问题的人也有可能会坐得更久。但研究人员对受试者进行了筛选,排除了重大医疗和精神疾病,因此这种解释的可能性不大。

• Gives birth to new brain cells (neurogenesis).

经常久坐不动的人即使定期快走、骑车或慢跑,大脑内侧颞叶的灰色神经组织也比不久坐的人更少。

What’s also intriguing is that this study did not find a significant
association between the level of physical activity and thickness of this
brain region, suggesting that exercise, even strenuous exercise, may not
be enough to protect you from the harmful effects of sitting.

分裂新的脑细胞(神经发生)

A decline in this area has repeatedly been shown to be an early warning
sign of Alzheimer’s disease in middle-aged and elderly patients.

同样有趣的是,这项研究并没有在体育活动水平和大脑这块区域的厚度之间发现显著的相关性,这就表明,运动–甚至是剧烈运动–可能不足以使你免受久坐的危害。

• Helps to regulate the stress response system (Andersen, Morris, Amaral
Bliss, & O’Keefe, 2007).

中老年人大脑内侧颞叶的萎缩已被反复证实是患上老年痴呆症的早期迹象。

This all puts me in mind of the Peripatetics, followers of Aristotle,
who conducted their philosophical inquiries while strolling about the
Lyceum in ancient Athens. Sounds as if they were on to something.

有助于调节压力反馈系统

The study, published in?PLOS ONE, quizzed the volunteers, who were
aged between 45 and 75, about their levels of exercise.

这一切都让我想起了逍遥学派–这是追随亚里士多德的学派,他们会一边进行哲学探讨,一边在古希腊的莱森学园(Lyceum)中漫步。听起来他们这样好像有点道理。

You can appreciate the many roles of the hippocampus if you have ever
known someone with dementia; the hippocampus is eventually destroyed in
patients with Alzheimer’s disease.

这项发表在《公共科学图书馆·综合》期刊上的研究对年龄在45岁到75岁之间的志愿者就其锻炼水平进行了问卷调查。

But what is it about walking – besides increased blood flow to the brain

如果你了解痴呆症患者,你就知道海马的许多作用;海马体在阿尔茨海默病患者中最终会被摧毁。

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