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作者:Valerie Maxsam Ed.S
版本:ISBN: 978-1-4835482-9-6
来源:下载的 PDF 版本

Giving children music lessons won’t just introduce them to a world of
rhythm and melody – it could also significantly improve their language
skills.

Parents who spend time and money to teach their children music, take
heart — a new Canadian study shows young children who take music
lessons have better memories than their nonmusical peers。

最近因为学习英语的缘故,会随意的翻一些英语书,记录的新知识点也许不多,主要是为了强化自己对英语的直觉

让孩子上音乐课不仅会将他们引入旋律的世界,而且还会显著提升他们的语言技能。

The study, published in the online edition of the journal Brain,
showed that after one year of musical training, children performed
better in a memory test than those who did not take music classes。

这是一本写作给教育工作者的书,帮助教育工作者指导3-9岁儿童的阅读能力提升,从中可以一窥西方国家基础教育中的一些方法,确实在导向性上和中国的教育体系有所差异,读的虽然有点磕绊,确也是非常棒的阅读体验

While numerous studies have shown that learning an instrument can impact
things like language ability, it wasn’t understood if this was a side
effect of a general boost to cognitive skills, or something that
directly affected language processing.

“(The research) tells us that if you take music lessons your brain is
getting wired up differently than if you don‘t take music lessons,”
Laurel Trainor, professor of psychology, neuroscience and behavior at
McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, said。

文章摘录:

尽管已有许多研究显示,学习乐器能影响语言能力,但科学家不清楚语言能力的提高是认知能力普遍提高的附带效果,还是说学乐器能直接影响语言处理能力。

“This is the first study to show that brain responses in young,
musically trained and untrained children change differently over the
course of a year,” said Trainor 。

Four prefixes account for 58 percent of all prefixed words:

Now, we are getting closer to an answer, thanks to a study of 74 Chinese
kindergarten children, led by neuroscientist Robert Desimone from MIT.

Over a year they took four measurements in two groups of children aged
between four and six — those taking music lessons and those taking no
musical training outside school — and found developmental changes over
periods as short as four months。

  • Un
  • Re
  • In (il, ir, im)
  • Dis

如今,得益于麻省理工学院的神经系统科学家罗伯特?德西蒙的一项调查研究,我们离答案又近了一步。
该研究涵盖了中国幼儿园的74名儿童。

The children completed a music test in which they were asked to
discriminate between harmonies, rhythms and melodies, and a memory
test in which they had to listen to a series of numbers, remember them
and repeat them back。

Twenty prefixes account for 97% of all prefixed words and 16 suffixes
account for 87% of all suffixed words.

“The children didn’t differ in the more broad cognitive measures, but
they did show some improvements in word discrimination, particularly for
consonants,” explains Desimone.

Trainor said while previous studies have shown that older children given
music lessons had greater improvements in IQ scores than children given
drama lessons, this is the first study to identify these effects in
brain-based measurements in young children。

Why don’t we spell words the way they sound?

德西解释说:“学乐器的孩子和其他孩子在广义的认知能力上没有差别,但他们确实在辨字尤其是辨认声母这方面更胜一筹。

She said it was not that surprising that children studying music
improved in musical listening skills more than children not studying
music。

As a succession of languages brought an influx of new vocabulary into
English over the centuries—German, Scandinavian, French, Latin, Greek
and Spanish — the way these words were spelled in the original
language was usually brought in as well. This had an inevitable effect
of moving spelling away from its straightforwardly alphabetic,
letter-sound foundation. The root word used depends on the people who
created the word, the purpose of the word, when the word entered
English.

The development of the English language is divided into three periods
Old English, Middle English and Modern English. The beginning and end
of each period is marked by a significant event, such as an invasion
or an invention.

“The piano group showed the best improvement there.”

“On the other hand, it is very interesting that the children taking
music lessons improved more on general memory skills that are correlated
with nonmusical abilities such as literacy, verbal memory,
visiospatial processing, mathematics and IQ,” she said。

Teaching students to only spell the 100 most frequently occurring words
is not the best instructional practice

“学钢琴的小孩在这方面的优势最明显。”

那些花钱花时间让孩子学音乐的家长们可以放心了,加拿大的一项最新研究表明,上过音乐课的儿童比那些没上过音乐课的同龄儿童记忆力要好。

Children have a much larger listening vocabulary than a speaking
vocabulary and their reading vocabulary exceeds their writing
vocabulary.
The goal of teaching vocabulary is to move vocabulary from receptive to
expressive.

For the study, Desimone’s team – including MIT scientists and
researchers from Beijing Normal University – recruited children from the
Chinese education system, with the support of education officials who
wanted to see how music learning might boost their academic results.

这项研究结果在《大脑》杂志的网站上发表,研究发现,上过一年音乐课的儿童在一项记忆力测试中的表现比没有上过音乐课的儿童好。

Most kids have a 5,000 word oral vocabulary when they come to school,
but reading vocabulary is much less than that. It is difficult for
children with less vocabulary knowledge to catch up with their
classmates because high achievers learn more words and they learn them
more quickly than low achievers.
Researchers have noticed that children from high SES homes know twice as
many words as those from low SES homes.

德西蒙的团队包括来自麻省理工学院的科学家和来自北京师范大学的研究人员。为了开展这项研究,该团队在中国教育部门官员的支持下,从中国教育系统中招募了一些儿童作为研究对象。这些官员想知道学音乐是如何能提高学业成绩的。

安大略省汉密尔顿市麦克马斯特大学研究心理学、神经系统科学和行为学的劳雷尔·特芮娜教授说:“这项研究告诉我们,是否上音乐课会对大脑的发育产生不同影响。”

High SES students’ reading vocab. grow at a rate of 3,000 to 4,000 words
per year but it:

The 4- to 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in the study were
randomly divided into three groups. One group received a 45-minute piano
lesson three times a week, while another received extra reading
instruction classes. The third group acted as controls, taking no extra
lessons beyond their usual routine.

特芮娜说:“这项研究首次发现,受过音乐训练的儿童和未受过音乐训练的儿童的大脑反应在一年内发生了不同的变化。

  • Depends on type of instruction
  • Depends on how well students use context clues
  • Depends on students’ interest

在这项研究中,母语为汉语的4到5岁的幼童被随机分为三组。一组孩子每周上三次钢琴课,每次45分钟,另一组孩子上额外的阅读课。第三组是对照组,在日常课程外不再上其他课。

在一年的时间里,研究人员对两组4至6岁的儿童进行了四项测定,其中一组是在课外时间上音乐课的儿童,另一组是未上音乐课的儿童,研究发现,在短短的四个月内,这两组儿童的大脑发育都有所不同。

Between grades 3-9, it is estimated that children will encounter 100,000
distinct words in their reading. By the time children graduate from high
school, highachieving students’ vocabularies reach 50,000 words or more

The classes lasted for six months, after which the children were tested
on their ability to discriminate words based on differences in tone,
consonants, or vowels.

参加此项研究的儿童接受了一项音乐测试和一项记忆力测试。在音乐测试中,研究人员要求这些儿童对和声、节奏和旋律进行鉴别;而在记忆力测试中,他们需要听一系列的数字,将它们记住,然后再把它们复述出来。

The breadth of knowledge is how many words a student knows, the depth of
vocabulary is how well a student knows the word. When teaching
vocabulary, teachers should focus on depth of knowledge. It is better to
teach 10 words that students will learn well than 50 words that students
will only be introduced too.

上了六个月的课以后,研究人员就辨别字的声调、声母和韵母的能力对幼童进行了测试。

特芮娜教授说,此前已有研究表明,在年龄稍大的儿童中,上过音乐课的儿童智商平均分比上过戏剧课的儿童进步得快。而此项最新研究首次对幼童进行了智商测试。

Formulate questions that become the basis for students’ future
literacyrelated activities

The test results showed that the children who had taken piano lessons
performed significantly better at discriminating between words that
differ by a single consonant, when compared against the children who
took extra reading lessons.

她说,“学习音乐儿童的音乐视听能力上比未学音乐的儿童强,这并不奇怪。”

“All evidence points to the seemingly illogical conclusion that the
faster most people read, the better they understand.” – Harry Shefter,
Faster Reading Self-Taught

测试结果显示,上过钢琴课的孩子在辨别声母不同的汉字上明显优于上过阅读课的孩子。

“但从另一方面看,十分有趣的是,学习音乐的儿童在一般性记忆力等非音乐技能方面的提高,如读写能力、语言记忆、视觉空间分析、数学、智商,比未学习音乐的儿童大。”

“Once you learn to read, you will be forever free.” — Frederick Douglass

Compared to the control group, both the music learners and the extra
reading group did better in terms of discriminating words based on vowel
differences.

It is generally acknowledged that motivation plays a critical role in
learning. It often makes the difference between learning that is
superficial and shallow and learning that is deep and internalized.
Listed below are six research-based strategies that will help motivate
students to want to read:

  1. The teacher as an explicit reading model. Research suggests
    that teachers who love reading and are avid readers themselves
    have students who have higher reading achievement than do students
    of teachers who rarely read. Teachers become explicit reading
    models when they share their own reading experiences with students
    and emphasize how reading enhances and enriches their lives.

  2. A book-rich classroom environment. A number of studies during
    the past decade have provided support for the notion that when
    children have environments that are book-rich, the motivation to
    read is high.

  3. Opportunities for choice. The role of choice, in motivation in
    general and reading motivation in particular, is well recognized.
    The research related to selfselection of reading materials
    supports the notion that the books and stories that children find
    most interesting are those they have selected for their own
    reasons and purposes.

  4. Opportunities to interact socially with others. Current
    theories of motivation recognize that learning is facilitated by
    social interactions with others. A number of recent studies have
    indicated that social collaboration promotes achievement, higher
    level cognition, and intrinsic desire to read.

  5. Opportunities to become familiar with lots of books. Curiosity
    is acknowledged to be a driving force in motivation.

  6. Appropriate reading-related incentives. The findings of a
    study suggest that if teachers are interested in developing an
    intrinsic desire to read, books are indeed the best reward.
    Extrinsic rewards that are strongly related to reading and reading
    behaviors can be used effectively to increase intrinsic
    motivation, particularly for children who do not have a
    literacy-rich background.

概念摘录:

与此同时,学音乐的孩子和上额外阅读课的孩子在辨别韵母不同的汉字上都优于对照组的孩子。

Phonics

To get a sense of why these differences might be occurring, the
researchers measured the children’s brain activity via
electroencephalography (EEG) and found the piano group exhibited greater
sensitivity to tonal changes when tones were played to them at different
pitches.

Phonics is the relationship between the letter and the sound it makes.
If a student reads the word cat as /kuh-ah-tuh/…cat…he or she is
reading phonetically. In this instance, you will most likely hear
students read aloud. They are not able to read words silently because
they are trying to make the letter-sound connection and they need to
hear and see the letter-sound connection.

为了弄清这些差异产生的原因,研究人员通过脑电图观测了孩子的脑活动,发现在收听抑扬顿挫的朗读时,钢琴组的孩子对声调变化更敏感。

Head Start (program)

The thinking goes, the exposure to music lessons helped develop this
tonal sensitivity, which in part explains their better verbal word
discrimination.

Head Start is a program of the United States Department of Health and
Human Services that provides comprehensive early childhood education,
health, nutrition, and parent involvement services to low-income
children and their families. The program’s services and resources are
designed to foster stable family relationships, enhance children’s
physical and emotional well-being, and establish an environment to
develop strong cognitive skills. The transition from preschool to
elementary school imposes diverse developmental challenges that
include requiring the children to engage successfully with their peers
outside of the family network, adjust to the space of a classroom, and
meet the expectations the school setting provides.

Launched in 1965 by its creator and first director Jule Sugarman, Head
Start was originally conceived as a catch-up summer school program
that would teach low-income children in a few weeks what they needed
to know to start elementary school. The Head Start Act of 1981
expanded the program. The program was revised when it was reauthorized
in December 2007. Head Start is one of the longest-running programs
attempting to address the effects of systemic poverty in the United
States by intervening to aid children. As of late 2005, more than 22
million children had participated. The current director of Head Start
is Blanca Enriquez, who was appointed in 2015.

研究人员认为,这说明上音乐课有助于培养对声调的敏感性,这也是音乐组孩子辨别字音的能力更强的部分原因。

ADD or ADHD

“That’s a big thing for kids in learning language: being able to hear
the differences between words,” Desimone says. “They really did benefit
from that.”

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder
of the neurodevelopmental type. It is characterized by problems paying
attention, excessive activity, or difficulty controlling behavior
which is not appropriate for a person’s age. The symptoms appear
before a person is twelve years old, are present for more than six
months, and cause problems in at least two settings (such as school,
home, or recreational activities). In children, problems paying
attention may result in poor school performance. Although it causes
impairment, particularly in modern society, many children with ADHD
have a good attention span for tasks they find interesting.

德西蒙说:“辨别字音——能够听出字与字之间的差别——对于孩子学语言很重要。更强的辨音能力确实能让孩子受益。”

middle SES

Perhaps more importantly, results of IQ, attention, and working memory
among the three groups didn’t show any significant differences,
suggesting that the boost given by music instruction isn’t a general
cognitive lift, but something specific to language (and perhaps the
tone-based elements of it).

Socioeconomic status (SES) is an economic and sociological combined
total measure of a person’s work experience and of an individual’s or
family’s economic and social position in relation to others, based on
income, education, and occupation. When analyzing a family’s SES, the
household income, earners’ education, and occupation are examined, as
well as combined income, whereas for an individual’s SES only their
own attributes are assessed. However, SES is more commonly used to
depict an economic difference in society as a whole.

Socioeconomic status is typically broken into three levels (high,
middle, and low) to describe the three places a family or an
individual may fall into. When placing a family or individual into one
of these categories, any or all of the three variables (income,
education, and occupation) can be assessed.

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