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So business schools have been struggling with this gender grade gap.
You get these equally qualified women and men coming in and then you get
these differences in grades, and it seems to be partly attributable
[ə’trɪbjətəbl]
to participation. So I started to wonder, you
know, okay, so you have these people coming in like this, and they’re
participating. Is it possible that we could get people to fake it
and would it lead them to participate more?

Scientists have discovered why the Mona Lisa’s expression looks so
different to different people and at different times.

Adolf Eichmann walks around the yard of his cell, Israel, 1961

So my main collaborator [kə’læbə’retɚ] Dana Carney, who’s at
Berkeley, and I really wanted to know, can you fake it till you make it?
Like, can you do this just for a little while and actually experience a
behavioral outcome that makes you seem more powerful? So we know
that our nonverbals govern how other people think and feel about us.
There’s a lot of evidence. But our question really was, do our
nonverbals govern how we think and feel about ourselves?

不同的人在不同的时间观察蒙娜丽莎的表情会得到完全不同的印象,对于这一点,科学家们已经找到其中的原因。

Adolf Eichmann walks around the yard of his cell, Ramla Prison,
Israel, April 1961. Otto Adolf Eichmann was a German Nazi
SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major
organizers of the Holocaust. Because of his organizational talents
and ideological reliability, Eichmann was charged by
SS-Obergruppenführer Reinhard Heydrich with the task of facilitating
and managing the logistics of mass deportation of Jews to ghettos
and extermination camps in German-occupied Eastern Europe.

After World War II, he fled to Argentina using a fraudulently
obtained laissez-passer issued by the International Red Cross. He
lived in Argentina under a false identity, working a succession of
different jobs until 1960. He was captured by Mossad operatives in
Argentina and taken to Israel to face trial in an Israeli court on 15
criminal charges, including crimes against humanity and war crimes.
The Mossad was able to get an EL-AL to Buenos Aires to
extricate Eichmann from Argentina. When the Argentinians
discovered the real reason for the jet being in Argentina, they tried
to stop it from flying back to Israel. The Mossad was only able to
escape because they flew directly to Africa to refuel instead of
remaining in the Western Hemisphere like they reported they would
in their itinerary. He was found guilty and executed by hanging in

  1. He is the only person to have been executed in Israel on
    conviction by a civilian court.

Eichmann was hanged shortly before midnight on May 31, 1962, at a
prison in Ramla, Israel. His executioner was Shalom Nagar. Eichmann
allegedly refused a last meal, preferring instead a bottle of dry red
Israeli wine produced by Carmel Winery, consuming about half the
bottle. He also refused to don the traditional black hood for his
execution.

There is some dispute over Eichmann’s last words. One account states
that these were:

Long live Germany. Long live Austria. Long live Argentina. These are
the countries with which I have been most closely associated and I
shall not forget them. I had to obey the rules of war and my flag. I
am ready.

Shortly after the execution, Eichmann’s body was cremated in a
specially designed furnace, and a stretcher on tracks was used to
place the body into it. The next morning, June 1, his ashes were
scattered at sea over the Mediterranean, beyond the territorial
waters of Israel by an Israeli Navy patrol boat. This was to
ensure that there could be no future memorial and that no country
would serve as his final resting place.

There’s some evidence that they do. So, for example, we smile when we
feel happy, but also, when we’re forced to smile by holding a pen in our
teeth like this, it makes us feel happy. So it goes both ways. When it
comes to power, it also goes both ways. So when you feel powerful,
you’re more likely to do this, but it’s also possible that when you
pretend to be powerful, you are more likely to actually feel
powerful.

For centuries, art lovers and critics have been perplexed by and debated
the Leonardo Da Vinci paintings gaze and slight smile – or is it a
grimace?


几百年来,艺术爱好者和评论家一直对莱奥纳多?达芬奇这幅画中人物的目光和她的微笑(或是苦相?)感到困惑,并对此进行争论。

今天学习的是 Eric Schmidt 2009年在 Carnegie Mellon University
做的毕业演讲:

But new research from the University of California, San Francisco has
shed new light on the luminous and seemingly changing face of the Mona
Lisa.

Eric Emerson Schmidt (born April 27, 1955) is an American software
engineer, businessperson, as well as the executive chairman of
Alphabet Inc (formerly named Google). From 1997 to 2001, he was chief
executive officer of Novell. From 2001 to 2011, he served as the CEO
of Google. He served on various other boards in academia and industry,
such as the boards of trustees for both Carnegie Mellon University and
Princeton University.

不过,美国旧金山加利福尼亚大学的一项新研究让人们对蒙娜丽莎明亮且似乎在不断变化的表情有了新的理解。

Well, thank you very much President Cohon. I want to start by
congratulating all the graduates, and I want to especially congratulate
the parents. And for the parents, remember that the students will still
need you and maybe now they’ll listen to you now that they’ve graduated.
And when I see computers and mobile phones, and I want you to look and
think about everybody here has a mobile phone with you and a camera, I
want you to remember that everything you touch was probably invented by
computer scientists that came from Carnegie Mellon.

Through experiments on visual perception and neurology, they discovered
that our emotions really do alter how we see a neutral face.

And this startling and surprising statistic is actually true, that
in the ‘60s, much of what we know in modern computing was invented here
by giants in my field. And I as a young person, roughly your age, worked
with people who seemed much older than me in their 30s, who had come
through that program, who ultimately came to develop the networks, the
workstations, the personal computers, and the mobile computing that we
use today. I was so impressed by what Carnegie Mellon had done for
computer science that not only did I become a trustee for a while, but
Google now has one of its very top ranked development centers here right
on campus, where we have, in many cases, the very best graduates and
employees that we could possibly get. These are people who do amazing
things as part of our underlying system, and they occasionally do
interesting things as well that you wouldn’t expect. They just released
a product called Star Joy. You take your mobile phone and turn it
towards the sky, and it tells you what the stars are doing. Right, how
neat is that.

通过视觉和神经学实验,科学家们发现,我们的情绪确实可以改变我们看待一个中性的脸部表情的方式。

Why is Carnegie Mellon the place that is so exceptional? I think it’s
because the culture is a culture of getting things done. It’s not a
purely theoretical culture, it’s not a purely tactical culture,
it’s a culture that’s about accomplishing things for the world, and that
is true regardless of the division, the department, the college, the
institute that you are part of and that you graduated from.

Dr Erika Siegel and her colleagues study how our emotions change our
perceptions of the world around us – even when we aren’t aware that
something has changed our feelings.

So when I think about you all, I think about you as the Facebook and the
Google generation, the first generation that really grew up with the
Internet. When I grew up, you know, we had Tang, you had Red Bull. We
used a program that was called basic, you all used Java. We had VCRs
that held a half an hour of video that cost $700, and you all can upload
15 hours of video in to YouTube every minute. We got our news from
newspapers, you get yours from blogs and tweets. And for those of you
who don’t know, that’s not what you hear in zoos. We stood in line to
buy Pong, you stood in line to buy Wiis. We just didn’t tell anyone
about our most embarrassing moments, you record them and post them to
Facebook and YouTube every day. I am so happy that my record of my
misachievements is not around for posterity. I’m looking forward to
yours being there for many, many years.

来自该大学的埃丽卡?西格尔博士及其同事研究情绪如何改变我们对周围世界的理解,即使我们不知道某些事情已经改变了自己的情绪。

Did you know that we use mainframe computers with 300 megabytes
of storage to go to the moon six times? Your iPods, 120 gigabytes
have 500 times more just to get you to your next class. We thought
friend is a noun, right, you think it’s a verb. We had phone booths,
anybody seen a phone booth recently? You have cell phones. We wore
watches, took pictures with cameras, navigate with maps, and listened to
transistor radios. You have a cell phone. We thought that the
marvels of computers and technology again, largely invented here, would
change the world. You agree, and we’re both right.

This relies on the modern theory of ‘the brain as a predictive organ,
instead of a reactive one,’ says Dr Siegel.

Why did you all go to college? To develop the kind of analytical
thinking skills, confronting the spin, the crazy choices of
information that you’ll have going forward. And then I would argue that
you have the opportunity to be the greatest generation because right in
front of you now are tools that we never had, that you can take
advantage of. And you sit there and you say this guy must be made, and
maybe that’s a little true, but in front of us you say oh, you know, the
world’s falling apart, we have this recession and so forth. I mean I did
some research using my favorite search engine, of course, and the Great
Depression spurred some incredible innovations … Rice Krispies,
Twinkies and the beer can. You would never have gotten through
college without these three things. So good things happen in recessions.

西格尔说,这基于“大脑是一种预测性器官而非反应性器官”的现代理论。

Why is ubiquitous information so important? Why is it so important
that we have access to all these things? It’s a tremendous
equalizer. In our lifetimes, literally, certainly in yours if not
mine, essentially every human being in the planet will have access to
every piece of information known on the planet.This is a remarkable
achievement. God knows what these people will do, and it’s going to be
pretty amazing. And information serves as a check and balance on
politicians. You know, if you were a dictator, which you’re not
going to be because you’re fine graduates at Carnegie Mellon, the first
thing you would do is shut off all communications to make sure that
people couldn’t take advantage of knowledge and overthrow you. So
what you do now with oppressive regimes and people who do evil
things is you attack them with information. You get that information out
there, you use the tools and technologies that all of us have worked so
hard on to make the world a better place.

In other words, ‘we have a lifetime of experience and we use those
experiences to predict what we are going to experience next. ‘

So what can we do with a vastly more powerful Web? Right, the Web of
information that comprises all of what we know. You can obviously have
face-to-face meetings with colleagues around the world, but more
importantly now we can do dynamic translations so we can translate
between languages so you could actually understand. You’re traveling in
Mongolia and you’re on a motorcycle – many of you will do this right
after you graduate, right, to get away – and you have an accident, and
you can actually have a doctor consult with you around the world and
they can translate and provide you the healthcare that you need. These
are very real wins.

西格尔解释说,换言之,“我们积累了一生的经验,并使用这些经验来预测接下来将要经历的事情。”

But most importantly, you can ask Google the most important questions
that bother you, like where are my car keys after all. You know,
computers are really good at remembering some things, and in the new
world much of this, again, technology that was invented here, we know
where everything can be, we can find them, we can keep track of things,
we can make your lives more functional. But you can also ask questions
like what’s the solution going to be to global warming, where’s the
vaccine for pandemics …and you thought finals were hard.
Right, think about the challenges before you.

‘Incoming information is actually just used to correct the predictions
if they turn out to be wrong,’ Dr Siegel explains.

So what should you do now? It seems to me that you should, you know,
think about George Bernard Shaw who said that all progress depends on
the unreasonable man. Don’t bother to have a plan at all. All that stuff
about plan, throw that out. It seems to me that it’s all about
opportunity and make your own luck. You study the most successful
people, and they work hard and they take advantage of opportunities that
come that they don’t know are going to happen to them. You cannot plan
innovation, you cannot plan invention. All you can do is try very hard
to be in the right place and be ready. You know, the pacemaker for
example was invented 70 years in one form or another before it was
applied. It was applied to this one poor fella, and 25 pacemakers
later he was still alive. But the important part is he wouldn’t have
been at all had the pacemaker not have been invented. You never know.

“如果这种预测被证明是错误的,新的信息实际上只是用于纠正预测。”

And life is like that. Life is … this is a John Lennon quote … life
is what happens to you while you’re busy making other plans. So live it
with its fullness, and if you live your life and forego your plan,
you could also forego fear. In some sense you’ve been penalized for
making mistakes historically, now you have to go out and make them
because mistakes allow you to learn and to innovate and try new things,
and that’s a culture of innovation that is going to create the next
great opportunities for all of you as you come to run and rule the world
and the rest of us retire.

So, she and her team predicted that how we perceive a new face – as
happy, sad, friendly, neutral – actually has a lot more to do with the
feelings we are carrying around when we greet it than the expression on
that face.

What should you do? How should you behave? Well, do things in a group.
Don’t do things by yourself. Groups are stronger, groups are faster.
None of us is as smart as all of us. You can use Twitter as a form of
social intelligence and its successors as well. Watson and Crick who
discovered the structure of DNA met at a university, today they would
meet on Facebook, and they would find each other and then they would do
these amazing things. And they’d say to each other, “What are you doing
right now? Oh, finding the secret of life. Oh, then off to a pub, LOL.”
You know, sort of, it’s okay. So, I would tell you that amidst all
this change, some truths endure. Leadership and personality matter, we
saw that from our student speaker. Intelligence, education, and
analytical reasoning matter. Trust matters in a network world. Trust is
your most important currency, which brings me to my final question, what
is the meaning of life? Correct question to ask any university. In a
world where everything is remembered and kept forever, the world you’re
graduating in to, you should live for the future and the things that you
really care about. Don’t live in the past, live in the future.

因此,西格尔及其团队预测,人们对一张新面孔——究竟是愉快、悲伤、友好,还是中性——的理解,实际上会更多地与我们遇见这张面孔时自身的情绪有关,而不是这张面孔的实际情况。

And what are those things? To figure this out, you need to actually turn
off your computer. I know this is difficult. You need to turn off your
phone, you need to actually look at the people who are near you and
around you, and decide that it is humans who ultimately are the most
important thing to us, not the other aspects. You’ll find out, I hope,
what I believe very strongly that people all around us of every race,
color, and viewpoint fundamentally want the same things. They want a
great and safe world, and they want prosperity and peace among all of
us. You’ll find that curiosity, enthusiasm, and passion are very
contagious, and I want you to show that because you have it by
virtue of being here. You’ll find that nothing beats the holding the
hand of your grandchild as he takes his first step. You’ll find that a
mindset in its own ways, set in its ways locked down is a mind and life
wasted. Don’t do it. You’ll find that the resilience in the human
spirit is amazing. It’s what got us through World War I and World War
II, and it will get us through our current challenges just fine.

Dr Siegel and he team can actually simulate that subconscious experience
of our feelings thanks to a trick our vision plays on us.

You’ll find today is the best chance you have to start being
unreasonable, to demand excellence, to drive change to make everything
happen. But when you do, speaking to the graduates, always remember to
be nice to your parents and true to your school.

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