Three times throughout the day—in the early morning, around mid-day, and
in the evening–cortisol levels rise. It’s highest between 6 a.m. and 10
a.m. (particularly so between 8 a.m. and 9 a.m。).
So we know that in primate hierarchies, if an alpha needs to
take over, if an individual needs to take over an alpha role sort of
suddenly, within a few days, that individual’s testosterone has gone up
significantly and his cortisol has dropped significantly. So
we have this evidence, both that the body can shape the mind, at least
at the facial level, and also that role changes can shape the mind.
So what happens, okay, you take a role change, what happens if you do
that at a really minimal level, like this tiny manipulation
[mə,nɪpjʊ’leʃən], this tiny intervention? “For two minutes,” you
say, “I want you to stand like this, and it’s going to make you feel
Dominika Kanikowska, lead author of the study, says more research is
needed, but the results are surprising.
So the second question really was, you know, so we know that our minds
change our bodies, but is it also true that our bodies change our minds?
And when I say minds, in the case of the powerful, what am I talking
about? So I’m talking about thoughts and feelings and the sort of
physiological things that make up our thoughts and feelings, and in
my case, that’s hormones. I look at hormones. So what do the minds
of the powerful versus [‘vɝsəs] the powerless look like? So
powerful people tend to be, not surprisingly,more assertive
[ə’sɝtɪv] and more confident, more optimistic. They actually
feel they’re going to win even at games of chance.They also tend to be
able to think more abstractly. So there are a lot of differences.
They take more risks. There are a lot of differences between powerful
and powerless people. Physiologically, there also are differences on two
key hormones: testosterone [tɛ’stɑstəron], which is the
dominance [‘dɔmɪnəns]皇家88平台， hormone,and cortisol [‘kɔrtɪsɑl],
which is the stress hormone. So what we find is that high-power
alpha males in primate hierarchies [‘haɪərɑrkɪz] have high
testosterone and low cortisol, and powerful and effective
leaders also have high testosterone and low cortisol. So what does that
mean? When you think about power, people tended to think only about
testosterone, because that was about dominance. But really, power is
also about how you react to stress. So do you want the high-power leader
that’s dominant, high on testosterone, but really stress reactive?
Probably not, right? You want the person who’s powerful and
assertive and dominant, but not very stress reactive, the
person who’s laid back.
Studies have shown that when people talk about developing a “tolerance”
for coffee, they are often talking—albeit unknowingly—about the reality
that their coffee consumption has fostered a decrease in the amount of
cortisol their body produces during the day。
Researchers at Poznan University of Medical Sciences in Poland looked at
levels of cortisol — a hormone that is released into the bloodstream in
response to stress and helps regulate blood sugar and salt — at
different times of the year.
Maybe it’s time to reconsider when you drink your first cup。
“We of course know seasonality in animals,” she says. “But more and more
results show that seasonality is also connected with human beings.”
It’s during the troughs above — between roughly 10 a.m. and noon, and 2
p.m. and 5 p.m.—when people should drink coffee if they want to get the
most out of their caffeine. Between those hours, the coffee is actually
most needed, and, perhaps most importantly, will not interfere with our
body’s own essential mechanism for keeping us alert。