What was the most interesting comparison was to see which front pockets
could fit a person’s hand.

2:女性被系统化地低估了她们自身的能力

The problem with these stories is that they show what the data shows:
women systematically underestimate their own abilities.

这种故事的问题 出在数据所表明的事实:
女性被系统化地低估了她们自身的能力。

If you test men and women, and you ask them questions on totally
objective criteria like GPAs, men get it wrong slightly high, and
women get it wrong slightly low.

如果你测试男性和女性, 你问他们问题,按完全客观的标准平均成绩来算,
男性会错误的高估一些, 女性则会错误地低估一些。

4、  在农村,妇女劳动参与率从2004年5月的49%下降至2009年10月份的37.8%

针对牛仔裤后身口袋的研究发现,男性和女性牛仔裤的差异并不大。

她们坐在了屋子的一边

Number one: sit at the table. Just a couple weeks ago at Facebook, we
hosted a very senior government official, and he came in to meet with
senior execs from around Silicon Valley. And everyone kind of sat at
the table.

第一,坐在桌旁。 仅仅几周前在脸谱, 我们主持一个非常高级行政官员会议,
他(马克·扎克伯格)与来自硅谷周围的高级行政官员 一一见面。
每个人都坐在桌边。

And then he had these two women who were traveling with him who were
pretty senior in his department, and I kind of said to them, “Sit at
the table. Come on, sit at the table,” and they sat on the side of the
room.

然后携同他的2个女性,在他部门中她们也占非常高的职位。
我对她们说,“坐在桌边。来吧,坐在桌边。” 她们坐在了屋子的一边。

图片 1

下列数据在印度历史上史无前例,不仅体现在妇女劳动参与率的锐减,而且总的妇女劳动人口数量也在持续收缩。

In an analysis of 20 major jean brands, the group found on average
women’s jean front pockets are 48 percent shorter and 6.5 percent
narrower than men’s pockets.

第一条:sit at the table

2、  适龄工作妇女人口劳动参与率从1993-94年间的42%锐减到了2011-12年的31%

People would think the purpose of a jean pocket would be so someone
could carry necessary items in it — such as a phone, wallet or their own
hand.

对数据体现的亲身体会

3、  下降最严重的部分发生在15-24岁居住在农村的妇女中,下降幅度达53%

研究人员用不同型号的手机对女性牛仔裤口袋进行测试,结果发现,仅有40%的品牌牛仔裤口袋可以装下一个iPhoneX手机。同样地仅有20%的品牌牛仔裤口袋可以装下一个三星Galaxy手机,让人吃惊的是,只有5%的品牌牛仔裤口袋可以装下谷歌Pixel手机。

1.弟弟没有认真上课却说在班里考试会最好

When I was in college my senior year, I took a course called European
Intellectual History. Don’t you love that kind of thing from college?
I wish I could do that now. And I took it with my roommate, Carrie,
who was then a brilliant literary student — and went on to be a
brilliant literary scholar

我在大四时, 我选修一节欧洲思想史的课程。 你们喜爱大学的这类课程嘛。
我希望我现在能做到。 我和我室友卡丽一起学习,
她那时是一个才华横溢的文学学生 成为了一个杰出的文学家 。

and my brother — smart guy, but a water-polo-playing pre-med, who was
a sophomore.

我的弟弟 一个聪明的小伙子,但他爱打水球,他上医学预科 大二。

The three of us take this class together. And then Carrie reads all
the books in the original Greek and Latin, goes to all the lectures. I
read all the books in English and go to most of the lectures. My
brother is kind of busy. He reads one book of 12 and goes to a couple
of lectures, marches himself up to our room a couple days before the
exam to get himself tutored.

我们三人一起选修这课。 然后卡丽读了 所有希腊文和拉丁文的原版书籍–
去了所有的课– 我读了所有英语的书 上了大多数的课。 我弟弟有点忙;
他读了12本书中的一本 去上了几节课, 在考试前几天他来到我们房间
自己辅导了一下。

图片 2

The three of us go to the exam together, and we sit down. And we sit
there for three hours — and our little blue notebooks — yes, I’m
that old.

我们三个一起去考试了,我们坐下来。
我们考了有3个小时,我们的小蓝笔记本,是的。

And we walk out, and we look at each other, and we say, “How did you
do?”

我们走出来,对视对方,我们说,“你考得怎样?”

And Carrie says, “Boy, I feel like I didn’t really draw out the main
point on the Hegelian dialectic.”

卡丽说,“伙计,我感到我真没有答对 有关黑格尔辩证法的主要命题。”

And I say, “God, I really wish I had really connected John Locke’s
theory of property with the philosophers who follow.”

我说,“上帝啊,我真希望我考试时能想到
学习过的洛克的产权理论等哲学家。”

And my brother says, “I got the top grade in the class.”

我弟弟却说, “我会是班里考得最好的。”

“You got the top grade in the class? You don’t know anything.”

“你会是班里考得最好的? 你啥都不知道。

图片 3

Nearly 20 million Indian women quit work between 2004-05 to 2011-12
The labour force participation rate for women of working age declined
from 42% in 1993-94 to 31% in 2011-12
Some 53% of the total drop – the largest chunk – happened among women
aged 15-24 and living in villages
In rural areas, the female labour force participation rate dropped from
49% to 37.8% between 2004-05 and 2009-10
While more than 24 million men joined the work force between 2004-5 to
2009-10, the number of women in the the work force dropped by 21.7
million
Using data gleaned from successive rounds of National Sample Survey
Organisation and census data, a team of researchers from World Bank have
attempted to find out why this is happening.
Predictable social norms are attributed to women quitting work in India:
marriage, motherhood, vexed gender relations and biases, and patriarchy.
The study says there has been a “larger response to income changes among
the poor, rather than the wealthy, by sending children to
school”.”Improved stability in family income can be understood as a
disincentive for female household members to join the labour force,”
says the study.
Clearly women need better and more suitable job opportunities, outside
agriculture. Rural labour markets need to offer jobs that are acceptable
and attractive to women and their families.
The World Bank study suggests that gains will not be realised unless
social norms around women’s – and men’s – work also change:”Strategies
to communicate the importance of women’s work should take into account
the roles of women, husbands and in-laws.”

女性牛仔裤的后身口袋仅比男性口袋短5%,窄2%。

今天我们要讲的还是sheryl sandberg,不过不再是她的介绍,而是她的演讲。

1、  在2004-05至2011-12期间,约2000万印度妇女辞掉工作

Now when the study looked at back pockets on jeans, it found there was
only a slight difference between ones for women and ones for men.

给出数据及研究:

5、
 但在2004年5月到2009年10月,超过2400万男性加入劳动人口,而在同时期女性劳动人口却下降了2170万。

When looking at what phone could fit into a woman’s jean pocket, the
study found only 40 percent of brands could hold an iPhoneX. Similarly
only 20 percent could hold a Samsung Galaxy, and a shocking five percent
could hold a Google Pixel.

5:道理简单,记住却难

I wish the answer were easy. I wish I could just go tell all the young
women I work for, all these fabulous women, “Believe in yourself and
negotiate for yourself. Own your own success.” I wish I could tell
that to my daughter. But it’s not that simple.

我但愿这答案是容易的。 我希望我尽可能告诉我所共事过的所有年轻女性,
所有这些非常棒的女性, “相信你们自己,为自身利益要讨价还价。
把握住你的成功。” 我希望我也能告诉我的女儿。 但这不是很简单。

图片 4

通过从国家抽样调查组织和人口普查的两轮数据收集,来自世界银行的研究团队尝试探寻到底什么原因导致印度妇女失业率的不断飙升。

在一项针对20个知名牛仔裤品牌的分析中,研究小组发现,与男性的口袋相比,女性牛仔裤前身口袋短了48%,窄了6.5%。

第三条 don’t leave before you leave.

I think there’s a really deep irony to the fact that actions women are
taking — and I see this all the time — with the objective of staying
in the workforce actually lead to their eventually leaving.

我认为这是一个非常深刻的讽刺,对于女性所采取行动而言–
我一直目睹类似情况的发生– 女性希望留在职场这个目标,
往往导致它们最终不得不离开职场。

Here’s what happens: We’re all busy. Everyone’s busy. A woman’s busy.
And she starts thinking about having a child, andfrom the moment she
starts thinking about having a child, she starts thinking about making
room for that child.
“How am I going to fit this into everything else
I’m doing?”

曾发生这样的事: 我们都忙;每个人都很忙;作为一个女人也很忙。
她开始考虑生小孩。 从她开始考虑生小孩的时候起,
她开始考虑为孩子准备房间。
“我该如何调整孩子这件事和手头上的其他事呢?”

And literally from that moment, she doesn’t raise her hand anymore,
she doesn’t look for a promotion, she doesn’t take on the new project,
she doesn’t say, “Me. I want to do that.” She starts leaning back. The
problem is that — let’s say she got pregnant that day, that day —
nine months of pregnancy, three months of maternity leave, six months
to catch your breath —fast-forward two years, more often.

言下之意, 她不再举起她的手, 她不寻求提升,她不找新的计划,
她不会说,“我,我想做那个。” 她开始退缩。 这是个问题
让我们说说她怀孕的那段日子 9个月的怀胎,3个月的产假,
6个月来调养休息,快速调整要2年, 甚至更多。

图片 5

And as I’ve seen it —women start thinking about this way
earlier
— when they get engaged, when they get married, when they
start thinking about trying to have a child, which can take a long
time.

正如我看到的 女性开始过早考虑这事,当她们有约会或者结婚时,
当她们开始考虑要小孩,这会花相当长的一段时间。

One woman came to see me about this, and I kind of looked at her —
she looked a little young. And I said, “So are you and your husband
thinking about having a baby?” And she said, “Oh no, I’m not married.”
She didn’t even have a boyfriend. I said, “You’re thinking about
this just way too early.”

一位女性关于此事来找我, 我看着她,她显得有点年轻。
我说,“那么你和你丈夫考虑要小孩了?” 她说,“哦不,我还没结婚。”
她甚至没有男友。 我说,“你考虑这个 太早了吧。”

But the point is that what happens once you start kind of quietly
leaning back? Everyone who’s been through this — and I’m here to tell
you,once you have a child at home, your job better be really good to
go back,
because it’s hard to leave that kid at home — your job
needs to be challenging.

但关键是一旦你开始退缩下来,接下来会发生什么呢?
每个人都会经历这个,在这儿我告诉你,一旦在家你有了孩子,
你真的最好是回到你的工作中去, 因为把小孩留在家太难了,
你的工作得有挑战性。

图片 6

It needs to be rewarding. You need to feel like you’re making a
difference. And if two years ago you didn’t take a promotion and some
guy next to you did, if three years ago you stopped looking for new
opportunities, you’re going to be bored because you should have kept
your foot on the gas pedal.

它也得有回报。 你得感觉到世界因你而变。 如果2年前你没有得到提升
在你旁边的一个男孩得到提升, 如果三年前 你放弃寻找新的机会,
你会变得很乏味,因为你应该紧踩油门,加油。

Don’t leave before you leave. Stay in. Keep your foot on the gas
pedal, until the very day you need to leave to take a break for a
child — and then make your decisions.Don’t make decisions too far
in advance, particularly ones you’re not even conscious you’re
making.

在你离开前别放弃。 保住工作。 紧踩油门, 除非到了那一天你需要离开
为了孩子休假 然后做出你自己的决定。 不要提前做太长远决定,
特别是你甚至不晓得自己该做怎样的决定。

图片 7

为何无数印度妇女失业?——BBC news 2017.5.26

A study by?The Pudding?only confirmed what most already know about
jean pockets when it found women’s were considerably smaller than ones
created for men.

改名研究证明记住很难

Because what the data shows, above all else, is one thing, which is
that success and likeability are positively correlated for men and
negatively correlated for women. And everyone’s nodding, because we
all know this to be true.

因为首先是数据表明的是一件事 它表明成功和人缘亲切性
对于男性来说是积极影响的,而对于女性来说是负面影响的。 每个人都点头,
因为我们大家都知道这是真的。(即越成功的男人,人们越喜欢;而对于越成功的女人而已则成反比。

There’s a really good study that shows this really well. There’s a
famous Harvard Business School study on a woman named Heidi Roizen.
And she’s an operator in a company in Silicon Valley, and she uses her
contacts to become a very successful venture capitalist.

一个非常棒的研究也很好地表明了这一观点。 哈佛商学院的一个著名研究
是有关于一位叫海蒂·罗森的女性。 她是硅谷一家公司的 负责人,
她使用她的关系 成为一名非常成功的风险资本家。

In 2002 — not so long ago — a professor who was then at Columbia
University took that case and made it Howard Roizen. And he gave the
case out, both of them, to two groups of students.He changed exactly
one word: “Heidi” to “Howard.”
But that one word made a really big
difference.

在2002年,不久前 当时在哥伦比亚大学的一位教授
做这个例子和把它改成霍华德·罗森。 他把这个案例,他们两人
向两组学生展示。 他只改变了一个词: 海蒂到霍华德。
但这个词就造成了非常大的差异。

图片 8

He then surveyed the students, and thegood news was the students,
both men and women,
thought Heidi and Howard were equally competent,
and that’s good.The bad news was that everyone liked Howard.He’s a
great guy. You want to work for him. You want to spend the day fishing
with him.

然后他调查学生。 好消息是学生们,男生和女生
认为海蒂和霍华德都是能力相当的, 这很好。
但坏消息是每个人都喜欢霍华德。 他是个了不起的人,大家都想和他共事,
大家都想和他去钓鱼。

But Heidi? Not so sure. She’s a little out for herself. She’s a little
political.You’re not sure you’d want to work for her.This is the
complication. We have to tell our daughters and our colleagues, we
have to tell ourselves to believe we got the A, to reach for the
promotion, to sit at the table.

但海蒂呢?不好说。 她有点只为自己着想,对政治有点热衷。
大家不太想和她共事。 这是复杂的。 我们得告诉我们的女儿和我们的同事,
我们得告诉我们自己相信我们能获得A, 得到提升, 坐在桌边。

And we have to do it in a world where, for them,there are sacrifices
they will make for that
, even though for their brothers, there are
not.

我们在这世上得做到这点,女性要争取这些就得做出牺牲,
尽管她们的兄弟不用为此而付出牺牲。

图片 9

The saddest thing about all of this is that it’s really hard to
remember this. And I’m about to tell a story which is truly
embarrassing for me, but I think important.

所有关于这的最可悲的事是很难记住这个。
我将讲个对我来说是个真正尴尬的故事, 但我认为它很重要。

I gave this talk at Facebook not so long ago to about 100 employees,
and a couple hours later, there was a young woman who works there
sitting outside my little desk, and she wanted to talk to me. I said,
okay, and she sat down, and we talked.

在脸谱不久前我给 大约100名员工做这个演讲。
几小时后,在脸谱工作的一个年轻女性 坐到我小桌子旁边, 她想和我谈谈。
我说,好,她坐了下来,我们谈了起来。

And she said, “I learned something today. I learned that I need to
keep my hand up.” I said, “What do you mean?” She said, “Well, you’re
giving this talk, and you said you were going to take two more
questions. And I had my hand up with lots of other people, and you
took two more questions. And I put my hand down, and I noticed all the
women put their hand down, and then you took more questions, only from
the men.”

她说,“我今天学了一些东西。 我知道我需要举起我的手。”
我说,“你指什么啊?” 她说,“你在讲这个话时,
你说你将会回答2个以上问题。
我和其他一些人举起手,你回答了2个以上问题。
我把手放下来,我注意到所有女性都把手放下来, 然后你又回答了很多问题,
仅有男性参与。”

图片 10

And I thought to myself, wow, if it’s me — who cares about this,
obviously — giving this talk — and during this talk, I can’t even
notice that the men’s hands are still raised, and the women’s hands
are still raised, how good are we as managers of our companies and our
organizations at seeing that the men are reaching for opportunities
more than women? We’ve got to get women to sit at the table.

我自己想了一下, 如果换成是我,谁会在乎这个,明显地,做这次演讲,
在这演讲中,我甚至没注意到男人们的手是不是还一直举着,
女人们的手是不是还一直举着, 我们到底有多出色,
当我们作为公司和组织的经理人的时候, 以及当我们作为少数,与男性竞争
争取机会的时候? 我们得让女性坐到桌子边上。

可预见的社会规则导致印度女性放弃工作:婚姻、母亲身份、棘手的性别关系和歧视,以及父权制。研究表明,贫困人口由于送孩子上学所引起的收入变化反应比富人更大。女性家庭成员参加工作来提升家庭收入的稳定性反而会被认为是一种妨碍。

《布丁》杂志开展的一项研究发现,女性的牛仔裤口袋比男性的小很多。这也证实了人们之前关于牛仔裤口袋的普遍看法。

给出三条对个人的建议

My talk today is about what the messages are if you do want to stay in
the workforce, and I think there are three. One, sit at the table.
Two, make your partner a real partner. And three, don’t leave before
you leave.

今天我的演讲是要讲 如果你真正想呆在职场。 我想有3条建议。
一,坐在桌旁。 二,让你的伴侣成为一个真正的合作伙伴。
三,在你离开前别放弃。

Also, as another study says, the “ongoing decrease in the availability
of farm-based work, has led to women focusing on economic activities
within their house。

这些结果和男性牛仔裤口袋截然不同。

职场女性并非适合所有人

Now, at the outset, I want to be very clear that this speech comes
with no judgments. I don’t have the right answer. I don’t even have it
for myself.

现在首先,我想澄清 这个演讲不带有任何评判。 我也没有正确的答案;
甚至就我而言,我也没有完全的答案。

I left San Francisco, where I live, on Monday, and I was getting on
the plane for this conference. And my daughter, who’s three, when I
dropped her off at preschool, did that whole hugging-the-leg, crying,
“Mommy, don’t get on the plane” thing.

在周一,我离开我生活的加利福尼亚, 我坐上飞机赶赴这会议。
当我送我三岁的女儿到幼儿园时, 她紧紧抱进我的腿,
哭喊着,“妈咪,不要上飞机”之类的话。

图片 11

This is hard. I feel guilty sometimes. I know no women, whether
they’re at home or whether they’re in the workforce, who don’t feel
that sometimes.So I’m not saying that staying in the workforce is
the right thing for everyone.

这很难受。有时我感到内疚。 我知道 无论是家庭主妇,还是职业女性,
有时她们都会感同身受。 所以我不会说对所有人来说,呆在职场
是件正确的事。

显然,除农业劳动之外,女性需要更好且更稳定的工作机会。农村劳动市场应该向妇女及他们的家庭提供可接受并且充满吸引力的工作机会。

研究发现,口袋中能装下上述三款手机的男性牛仔裤品牌分别占到100%、95%和85%。

阐明演讲主要内容:

The numbers are stark – for the first time in India’s recent history,
not only was there a decline in the female labour participation rate,
but also a shrinking of the total number of women in the workforce.

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