在今天的美国,普通家庭从孩子上幼儿园到中学阶段购买返校用品平均花费685美元(4679元人民币),自2005年以来上涨了近250美元。2018学年全美总计在学生用品上花费275亿美元。

It is quite common these days for young people in many countries to have
a break from studying after graduating from high school. The trend is
not restricted to rich students who have the money to travel, but is
also evident among poorer students who choose to work and become
economically independent for a period of time.

There are fundamental similarities. For instance, all boys and girls
must attend full-time education until the age of 16. Many pupils stay on
at school after that age to prepare themselves for university or other
careers. In the independent schools, most pupils stay at school until
the age of 18 and nearly all pupils go on to university after they leave
school.

How much paper and glue can $27.5bn buy?

剑9 Test 1

The British school system

Education is mandatory from ages 5 to 16 (to be raised to 18 in 2013 for
16-year-olds and 2015 for 17-year-olds). Students may then continue
their secondary studies for two years (sixth form), with most students
taking A-level qualifications. Other qualifications and courses include
Business and Technology Education Council (BTEC) qualifications, the
International Baccalaureate (IB) and the Cambridge Pre-U.

The 2 systems are the States schools and the independent schools (or
Public schools). The State schools get State funds and are regulated by
a Local Education Authority. Most of the State schools are either
Comprehensive, Foundation or Grammar schools and Free Schools (set-up by
local parents and run by organisations, like Foundation schools).

A Comprehensive school is a secondary school that does not select
children on the basis of academic attainment or aptitude.

Grammar schools : selective school through the 11 plus exam (about 10%
of “gifted” children pass the exam). The system is often blamed for
elitism.

Independent schools or Public schools : private schools, charge fees.

A the end of the compulsory period at 16, all students pass the GCSE
(General Certificate of Secondary Education) exam. If it’s successful
it’s then possible to attend a 2 year preparation in a College or a
Sixth Form Centre (in State schools or Public schools) to pass the
A-Levels. Pupils choose usually 3 subjects to pass for their exam and
get a notation with the highest grade being A.

About 90% of the English pupils are in State schools. But be careful:
they can be very good or a disaster! You better double check the quality
of the schools you are about to choose. Performance of the school to the
GCSE and A-levels exams for example may be helpful.

At some point, school is meant to end. But in countries like New Zealand
and Iceland, that isn’t for almost two decades. A student’s ‘school life
expectancy’ is calculated by the average enrolment rates for different
ages from primary school to the undergraduate university level.
Australia currently holds the longest expectancy at 22.9 years from
primary school to university, or from six years old to about 28. At the
bottom of the list is Niger, where students generally begin primary
school at the age of seven. Here, the average time a student spends in
school is as few as 5.3 years – a 17-year difference. (Source: Global
Innovation Index)

Write about the following topic:

University studies in England

Many elite universities are in England. British universities are known
for their illustrious history and research output. Students normally
enter university at age 18 and a bachelor’s degree is usually awarded
after four years of study.

“A” Level : it is a group of certificates according to the choice of the
student. Getting 3 certificates allows to continue at University level.

Short Cycle

Long Cycle

Higher National Diploma: 2 years

First degree: only honours will allow the student to go to Higher
Degrees.

太平洋西北地区的雪松是美国铅笔用木的最大来源地,而多数铅笔所用的石墨采自中国和斯里兰卡。为了给全球供应铅笔,每年要砍掉6万到8万棵树。(数据来源:《经济学人》杂志)

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2. Weigh up the advantages and disadvantages

So you will be leaving Sixth Form soon and have to decide whether to
take that place at University or join the world of work.

For a lucky few, your chosen career path is clear: you wish to be an
doctor and you need to go to Uni, plain and simple. For others –
probably the majority of students, the next few years are a blank
canvas, and you are left wondering whether investing three or four years
is University is likely to pay the dividends you are looking for.

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Before you make the decision, you should take time to weigh up the
advantages and disadvantages of going to University. This blog post sets
out to give you some of the questions you should be asking yourself.

再来看看丹麦。丹麦要求小学生每年的课时量要达到1000个小时,比俄罗斯多出近2个月,而且丹麦每天上课时间也更长。丹麦的教育水平一直稳居世界五强,也许证明了课时长还是有好处的。(数据来源:经济合作与发展组织)

What do you think are the advantages of attending school from a young
age?

Boarding Schools

The world models boarding schools on the classic British boarding
school. There is usually a dormitory, the refectory, and the study hall.
Boarding schools may be all-boarding or flexible boarding, or offer
weekly boarding. This allows students the opportunity to return home on
weekends or only stay at the school occasionally. Boarding schools were
declining during the 1990’s, but have received a small revival which may
be due to the “Harry Potter” effect.

Parents aren’t the only ones who pay the price for school. Just think
of the trees.

Most people would consider children who have many toys to be the
fortunate ones. Interesting things to play with stimulate many positives
in the young boy or girl, such as optimum brain development, hand-eye
coordination and colour recognition, apart from the simple joy of
playing. Modern toys are designed to be educational as well as fun, and
concerned parents carefully select products which might speed their
child’s acquisition of numbers or the alphabet.

Is school education the same throughout the United Kingdom?

Then there is Denmark. The country requires primary school students to
spend about 1,000 hours a year in class. That’s nearly two more months
than Russia, and Denmark has longer schooldays. As a country
consistently ranked in the top five for education, however, perhaps
Denmark proves there are some benefits to having such a long school
year. (Source: OECD)

In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for
year between finishing high school and starting university studies.

Disadvantages

– Irrelevance to your future career: If your chosen job does not require
University training, then a find a three- or four-year stint in
University may be a waste of time.

– The Expense: The thought of graduating with a student debt of £27,000
can discourage many students from pursuing a tertiary education. Indeed,
BBC news recently reported that the rise in fees had led to a 17 per
cent drop in UK undergraduates. The case is especially grim for
part-time students, who are more likely to come from disadvantaged
backgrounds to begin with, and who may find the fees simply too high to
afford.

I hope that you have found this Jane Book possibly provided some food
for thought in your decision whether to go to University.

Of 33 developed nations, primary students in Russia have the fewest
required instructional hours per year – just over 500 (the international
average is 800 hours). This translates to about five hours a day, with
breaks between each class, during an eight-month-long schoolyear. But
that doesn’t seem to be holding the country back too much: Russia’s
universal literacy rate is almost 100%.

Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

Stages of Education

The education system is divided into:

Nursery (ages 0–3) and Pre-school Nursery (ages 3–4)

Primary education (ages 4–11)

Secondary education (ages 11–18)

Tertiary education (ages 18+)

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剑5 Test 2

Library

London’s scholarly reputation is not without merit. The city has a
distinguished literary tradition and many fine libraries.

The London Library – The London Library is the UK’s leading literary
institution and the world’s largest independent lending library. It
offers more than one million books with a collection spanning works from
the 16th century to the latest publications. Membership is open to
everyone on payment of an annual subscription.

Other libraries can be found on the City of London’s Libraries. The site
includes locations, a mobile app, and free audiobook downloads.

即使是在虚拟现实、3D打印和无人机时代,简单的铅笔依然继续在世界各地的学校中存在。在铅笔被发明了400多年后的今天,每年约有150亿到200亿根铅笔被生产出来。

While some people think this may be damaging to a child’s development,
or to a child’s relationship with his or her parents, in fact there are
many advantages to having school experience at a young age.

Ordinary Degree :

B.Eng (Bachelor of Engineering): 1 additional year in Scotland and
called Ordinary Degree with honours)

B.Art (Bachelor of Art)

B.Sc (Bachelor of Science)

Diploma or Certificate: 1 year

Post Graduate:

Master’s Degree by research: 1 to 2 years with dossier presentation

In the US, the average family now spends about $685 on their child’s
back-to-school necessities from kindergarten to secondary school, an
increase of nearly $250 since 2005 – and that works out to $27.5 billion
total for the 2018 schoolyear.

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide
to do this.

Fees

Fees range from school to school so make sure to compare. There are
occasional grants and scholarships for worthy students, but they are
competitive. Ask at the school for opportunities.

Example of prices per term:

Pre-Prep (age 2/3-7): 1000 to 1500 GBP

Junior/Prep (age 7-11/13) Day Classes: 1,400 to 4,250 GBP

Junior/Prep (age 7-11/13) Boarding: 2,055 to 5,010 GBP

Senior (age 11/13-18) Day Classes: 3,360 to 5,390 GBP

Senior (age 11/13-18) Boarding: 5,640 to 8,360 GBP

Extra activities like instrumental instruction, school uniforms, or
school trips may require additional fees. Many private schools have
their own second-hand shops selling uniforms and other supplies.

澳大利亚人一生的四分之一时间都在上学。

剑10 Test 3

In England and Wales, the government introduced a National Curriculum in

为孩子上学付出代价的不只有父母,还有树木。

Do you think this is a positive or negative development?

  1. This provides a framework for education between the ages of 5 –
  2. All state schools are required to follow it. Independent schools are
    not required to follow the National Curriculum in all its details, but
    they must show that they provide a good all-round education and they are
    inspected regularly every few years.

每个人总有离开学校的那一天。但是在新西兰和冰岛等国家,人们要在学校里待上近二十年。一个国家学生的“学校生涯”是按照不同年龄人群在小学到大学的平均入学率来计算的。澳大利亚人的学校生涯是现今世界上最长的,从小学到大学长达22.9年,也就是从6岁到28岁都在上学。学校生涯最短的国家是尼日尔,那里的学生普遍7岁开始上小学。尼日尔人平均在校时间只有5.3年,和澳大利亚人相差了17年。(数据来源:全球创新指数)

It is true that many parents purchase a multitude of playthings for
their offspring. Whether or not this is a good thing for the child, is a
moot point. On the face of it the advantages seem most apparent, but
could there be a downside to this phenomenon of devoted parenting as
well?

17th. February 2017

Cedar trees found in the Pacific Northwest are the most common source of
pencil wood in the US, while most of the graphite is mined in China and
Sri Lanka. Approximately 60,000 to 80,000 trees are cut each year to
maintain the world’s pencil supply. (Source: The Economist)

在剑桥雅思中,利弊探讨题的考官范文一共给了六篇,如下:

Advantages

– The chance to specialise: If you have a passionate love for history,
you dream of a career as a barrister or you are a budding Stephen
Hawking, University is an ideal place to encounter great thinkers. If
you are lucky enough to encounter lecturer and tutors who are as
passionate about your field as you are, it can be intensely rewarding.
Your Professors will accompany you along the most important areas of
your subject provide important reading lists and keep you abreast of new
developments in your chosen subject. It is no wonder that most graduates
look back on their University days as the most mentally stimulating of
their life.

– University is a good investment: Despite the high fees many
Universities in the UK can charge (currently £9,000), a tertiary
education continues to pay dividends. The Office for National Statistics
indicates that graduates are more likely to be employed than those with
a lower-standard education. Indeed, non-graduates aged 21 to 30 have
consistently higher unemployment rates.

Graduates also have the lion’s share of skilled jobs and the choice of
University is relevant as well: graduates from top Universities earn
higher salaries than those from other institutions. You should be aware
that the rewards for study are likely to come later: on average,
graduates aged 21 earn a lower gross annual wage than students who opt
for an apprenticeship. This is owing to the fact that new University
graduates will have just entered the labour market or may take time to
find a job in their chosen field.

It all levels out in time, though: those with apprenticeships earn less
than graduates from age 25 onwards. According to Labour Force Survey
figures, over a 40-year working lifetime, a graduate will earn £415,320
more than those who have not studied for a degree. Net lifecycle
earnings are increased by 28 per cent for male graduates, and by 53 per
cent for female graduates.

– Meet new people: If you have been at the same secondary school for the
past seven years, chances are, you are used to moving in the same social
circle. University offers the chance to encounter people of all ages and
from different backgrounds, which can broaden your horizons and
enlighten you on different habits, customs and ways of thinking.
University offers the unique opportunity to meet people from other
countries and to immerse yourself in their culture and traditions.

– University can teach you about entrepreneurship: The QAA report,
Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Education: Guidance for UK Higher
Education Providers , highlights the important role good Universities
can play, not just in creating experts in specialist fields, but also in
instilling an entrepreneurial spirit in students. After all, if you have
invested a great deal of time and money in your education, you should
develop the skills you need to make the most of your degree, by being
aware of your capacity to manage and exploit your intellectual assets,
or even consider self-employment or the establishment of a start-up
business!

– The value of independence: University can boost your confidence in
your own abilities, especially if you opt for an institution which is
far from your hometown. Tasks that may seem arduous (doing your own
cooking, ironing, shopping) are actually great teachers of skills like
time management and budgeting. Moving away from home for the first time
also teaches you to establish your own limits (curfews, visits which are
or aren’t allowed to your home, etc.). Being independent likewise
encourages you to be responsible with your freedom.

– Finding new interests: University offers such a wide range of
activities, opportunities and incentives that you will be hard pressed
to keep your choice of extra-curricular activities to a minimum. Hone
your skills in writing by joining the editorial staff of the student
newspaper or sign up for a film club or equal opportunities group.
University is as much about discovering yourself and others, as it is
about obtaining a degree; make the most of this unique opportunity and
aim to have fun while you learn.

– A positive outlook: It seems that opting for a University education
has positive effects on one’s mental and physical wellbeing. A study
commissioned by the Higher Education Funding Council for England (HEFCE)
has found that graduates are les likely to suffer from depression,
obesity or an addiction to smoking. They are also more likely to vote,
help their children in the pursuit of an education and enjoy a higher
sense of wellbeing.

Interestingly, a study carried out in the USA has found that graduates
with a bachelor’s degree have a life expectancy of almost nine years
longer than those who have not obtained a high school diploma. Graduates
also tend to be more integrated into their respective communities,
becoming involved in volunteering and other pursuits, which are
beneficial to the community at large.

Even in the age of virtual reality, 3D printing and drones, the simple
pencil continues to make a mark in institutions across the world. Today,
more than 400 years after their invention, an estimated 15 to 20 billion
pencils are produced each year.

Let us not forget either that traditional products, whether these be
medicines, cosmetics, toys, clothes, utensils or food, provide
employment for local people. The spread of multinational products can
often bring in its wake a loss of jobs. as people turn to buying the new
brand, perhaps thinking it more glamorous than the one they are used to.
This eventually puts old-school craftspeople out of work.

Private School

Private Schools can offer an elevated environment of learning for some
students. Other schools offer a specialty focus that may be worth paying
extra for. It is important to visit a school to determine the best fit
for you and your child. Most private schools have open days for
prospective parents, but it is wise to ask to make an appointment to
visit on a normal working day. Questions you may want to ask:

皇家88平台,Special needs: Does the school have facilities and suitably qualified
and experienced staff to look after any special needs your child may
have? Is there a program for gifted and talented children or special
provision for those with physical disabilities? Is their a language
requirement that could aid your child?

Curriculum: Is it broad and balanced? Will your child have an adequate
range of options? Are there specialist teachers?

The staff: How well qualified are they? Is there reasonable staff
stability? Do the teachers stay long in post?

Extra activities: Does the school offer an exciting extra-curricular
activities programme that will stimulate your child’s interest? If you
are considering boarding school, you will want to know what activities
the school provides for children in the evening and at weekends.

Exam results: High in the “league tables” indicates success with
standardized tests

ACS Hillingdon International School

Address: Hillingdon, London UB10 0BE

Aston House School

Address: 10 Montpelier Road, Ealing, London, W5 2PQ

Buxlow Prepatory School

Address: 5/6 Castleton Gardens, Wembley, Middlesex, HA9 7QJ

City of London School

Address: Queen Victoria Street, London, EC4V 3AL

Donhead

Address: Donhead Lodge, 33 Edge Hill, Wimbledon, London SW19 4NP

Herne Hill School

Address: The Old Vicarage, 127 Herne Hill, London SE24 9LY

More House School

Address: 22-24 Pont Street, London SW1X 0AA

Norfolk House School

Address: 10 Muswell Avenue, Muswell Hill, London, N10 2EG

Queenswood

Address: Shepherd’s Way, Brookmans Park, Hatfield, Hertfordshire, AL9
6NS

RIMU Music Prepatory School

Address: 95 Old Dover Road, Blackheath, London, SE38SJ

St. Christopher’s Prepatory School

Address: 71 Wembley Park Drive, Wembley Park, London, HA9 8HE

在33个发达国家中,俄罗斯小学生每年的课时量是最低的,刚刚超过500个小时(国际平均课时量是800个小时)。这相当于在八个月长的学年里,每天只上约5个小时的课,中间还包括课间休息时间。但这并没有让俄罗斯在教育上落后太多:俄罗斯民众的识字率将近100%。

Write about the following topic:

Secondary School

Pupils progress from primary to secondary levels at age 11. A few areas
have three-tier education systems with an intermediate middle level from
age 9 to 13.

Under the National Curriculum, all pupils undergo National Curriculum
Tests (NCTs) towards the ends of Key Stage 2 in the core subjects of
Literacy, Numeracy and Science. Pupils normally take GCSE exams in the
last two years of Key Stage 4, but may also choose to work towards the
attainment of alternative qualifications, such as the GNVQ.

The Sixth Form (sometimes referred to as Key Stage 5) describes the
years 12 and 13 of the schooling system. This the final (optional) two
years of secondary education, where students, usually sixteen to
eighteen years of age, prepare for their A-level (or equivalent)
examinations.

Danes spend 200 hours a year more in school than the average
student.

It is clear then that this situation is not as straightforward as it
first appears. It would seem that one of the many duties of parents is
to make an informed choice about how many toys they buy for their young
ones.

How is the daily timetable organised?

Each school organises its timetable differently. Lessons might last 35,
40, 45, 55 or 60 minutes! For each subject, a student will attend
classes for about 5 hours a week, and is also expected to undertake at
least 6 hours private study. Students will usually also attend classes
in General Studies, or Philosophy, or other similar subjects. There will
also be time given to Physical Education or Sport, whether or not these
are taken as subjects for studying. In England and Wales and in some
Scottish schools the two years of Advanced Level, or International
Baccalaureate study are often called “Sixth Form”, but – once again –
each school is different!

What activities are organised outside lessons?

Along with sport, schools offer a substantial programme of
“extra-curricular activities”; that is, activities which are able to
offer students a wide range of experiences, intellectual, cultural and
relaxing. Music, drama, science and literary societies are offered in
all schools, and there will be opportunities for outdoor education and
other leisure activities. Visits to theatres and concerts, to places
relevant to the courses of study (such as art galleries and museums,
religious centres or historical sites, scientific companies and
projects) are all part of life in a school Sixth Form.

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参考资料

The English education system has an excellent reputation with students
from the UK and around the world attending school here. The system is
overseen by the Department for Education and the Department for Business

  • Innovation and Skills. Local authorities (LAs) are responsible for
    implementing policy for public education and state schools at a regional
    level.

丹麦学生每年在校时间比其他国家的学生多出200小时。

In many places today, children start primary school at around the age of
six or seven. However, because it is more likely now that both parents
work, there is little opportunity for children to stay in their own home
up to that age. Instead, they will probably go to a nursery school when
they are much younger.

International Baccalaureate (IB)

The IB program is offered by a number of private schools. It is taught
under the supervision of the International Baccalaureate Organisation.
All students study languages, social science, experimental science,
mathematics and arts.

The IB is divided into three programmes covering the following age
ranges:

Primary Years Programme (PYP) ages 3-12

Middle Years Programme (MYP) ages 11-16

Diploma Programme (DP) ages 16-18

275亿美元可以买多少纸和胶水?

Anything which encourages language learning benefits society culturally
and economically, and early exposure to language learning contributes to
this. Young children’s innate abilities should be harnessed to make
these benefits more achievable.

There are also significant divergences between practice in England and
Wales, on the one hand, and Scotland.

Students in Australia attend class for a quarter of their lifetime.

Countries are becoming more and more similar because people are able
to buy the same products anywhere in the world.

Early Education

From 0 to 3, Children can attend nursery schools. They are private
schools and can be very expensive in London, in average (depending on
location) from £50/day to £120/day. Once you have booked specific days
per week (from 1 to 5) it is not possible to change them (you may be
able to swap days on specific occasion with a fee) and it is expected
that you will pay the nursery 12 months a year (even when your child is
on holiday or sick). You can stop the nursery with a 1 to 3 months
notice. Time for nursery may vary, usually 8am to 6.30pm (some of them
only open from 9am to 3:15pm).

All providers are regulated, inspected and reports are available on the
Office for Standards in Education

Children aged 3 to 4 are entitled to a free nursery school (the
pre-school grant is paid by the Council and may be worth ~£2300/year).
Formal primary education begins in the year they turn 5. The school year
begins on 1 September (or 1 August if a term starts in August).

State primary schools are free, but their admission is usually subject
to a catchment area (this process resulting into the usual question:
“Where in London should you move for the best state primary schools?”),
which can be very small for popular schools with best results to Ofsted
inspection (sometime only a few hundred meters). All maintained schools
in England are required to follow the National Curriculum, which is made
up of twelve subjects. The core subjects of English, Mathematics and
Science are compulsory for all students aged 5 to 16.

Combined with university spending, the number climbs to $83bn. The most
expensive items are computers at an average spend of $299 per household.
Clothing is close behind at $286, followed by electronics like tablets
and calculators at $271. Last are the basics: binders, folders, books,
highlighters and the rest, which cost $112. (Source: Statista /
Deloitte)

Write at least 250 words.

How many subjects do HMC Projects scholars study?

i) Advanced levels: For the Advanced Level programme (Key Stage 5),
nearly all pupils study three or, exceptionally, four subjects for two
years and take examinations in these only at the end of the second year.
They may also take one or even two additional subjects for one year only
at Advanced Subsidiary (AS) level and take examinations in these at the
end of the year. Some schools will offer examinations at AS level to
pupils in those subjects they are studying for A level at the end of the
first year of the two-year course. Universities use Advanced Levels as
entry qualifications.

ii) Scottish Highers: Students will take at least five subjects at
Higher Level, reducing to three or four for their Advanced Higher
courses.

iii) International Baccalaureate (IB): Increasing numbers of HMC schools
are taking pupils for the International Baccalaureate, which is a
parallel course to Advanced Levels and equally well used by universities
for entry qualifications. The IB requires students to take courses in
six subjects, three at higher level and three at lower level. Students
are also required to take a course in the theory of knowledge, to write
a long essay and to undertake some community service. This course is
very similar to the Baccalaureate courses which are commonly studied in
Europe.

如果再加上大学阶段的学生用品花费,花费高达830亿美元。最贵的支出是电脑,平均每家花费299美元。仅次于电脑的是衣服,花费286美元,其后是平板电脑和计算器等电子产品,花费271美元。最后则是一些基本学习用品:活页夹、文件夹、书、荧光笔等花费112美元。(数据来源:Statista
/德勤)

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

Master Degree

M.Eng (Master of Engineering)

M.Art (Master of Art)

M.Sc (Master of Science)

Master’s Degree by instruction: 1 year with an exam at the end

Doctor’s Degree

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD): 3 years of research

Doctor of Letters and Doctor of Science: grant a group of works and
articles published

Admission

The state does not control university syllabi, but it influences
admission procedures through the Office for Fair Access (OfFA). The
universities in the United Kingdom share an undergraduate admission
system. Applications must be made by October 15th for admissions to
Oxford and Cambridge and by January 15th for admissions to other UK
universities.

University of Oxford – Located in Oxford, this is the second-oldest
surviving university in the world and the oldest in the English-speaking
world. Most undergraduate teaching at Oxford is organized around weekly
tutorials at self-governing colleges and halls, supported by classes,
lectures and laboratory work organized by University faculties and
departments. Oxford regularly contends with Cambridge for first place in
the league tables and is consistently ranked in the world’s top 10
universities.

University of Cambridge – The seventh-oldest university globally, the
university grew out of an association of scholars in the city of
Cambridge. Cambridge ranks as one of the most prestigious universities
in the world with graduates of the University winning a total of 65
Nobel Prizes.

University College London – This is a public research university located
in London. It is the oldest and largest constituent college of the
federal University of London. UCL’s main campus is located in the
Bloomsbury area of Central London.

Imperial College London – Officially known as the Imperial College of
Science, this is a public research university located in South
Kensington in London.

London School of Economics – The London School of Economics and
Political Science is a public research university. Based in Westminster,
it is among the world’s most selective universities.

剑10 Test 3

The reasons for this trend may involve the recognition that a young
adult who passes directly from school to university is rather restricted
in terms of general knowledge and experience of the world. By contrast,
those who have spent some time earning a living or travelling to other
places, have a broader view of life and better personal resources to
draw on. They tend to be more independent, which is a very important
factor in academic study and research, as well as giving them an
advantage in terms of coping with the challenges of student life.

What do you think are the advantages of attending school from a young
age?

In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for
year between finishing high school and starting university studies.

Do you think this is a positive or negative development?

Traditionally, children have begun studying foreign languages at
secondary school, but introducing them earlier is recommended by some
educationalists. This policy has been adopted by some educational
authorities or individual schools, with both positive and negative
outcomes.

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