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Riding shotgun真的跟猎枪有关

Put the screw on 施加压力,强迫

The Elements of Style

“Riding shotgun” is the ideal place to ride during on a road trip. But
in the Old West, the person sitting in the passenger seat was required
to do a whole lot more than find the perfect radio station.

Beth’s mother puts the screw on her and hopes she can get married before
30.

周末查阅了下William Strunk, Jr.的The Elements of
Style
。这是一本介绍英语基本写作规则的书。通过此书可以比较浅的了解下William
Strunk,
Jr.是如何提炼简洁明了的语言,避免使用一些乏味,模凌两可的词汇。如何写好一个让读者看懂的故事。

在现代,riding
shotgun指的是汽车上的副驾驶座。在旧时的美国西部,副驾驶座上的人要做的可不仅仅是调到一个好电台那么简单。

Eddie puts the screw on himself to study hard so as to enter his ideal
university.

Chapter1:Elementary Rules of Usage

  1. Form the possessive singular of nouns with ‘s.
    例:

Charles’s friend
Burns’s poems
the witch’s malice

But such forms as Achilles’ heel, Moses’ laws, Isis’ temple are commonly
replaced by:

the heel of Achilles
the laws of Moses
the temple of Isis

  1. In a series of three or more terms with a single conjunction, use a
    comma after each term except the last.
    例:

red, white, and blue
honest, energetic, but headstrong
He opened the letter, read it, and made a note of its contents.

  1. Enclose parenthetic expressions between commas.
    例:

The best way to see a country, unless you are pressed for time, is
to travel on foot.
In 1769, when Napoleon was born, Corsica had but recently been
acquired by France.
Nether Stowey, where Coleridge wrote The Rime of the Ancient
Mariner
, is a few miles from Bridgewater.

  1. Place a comma before and or but introducing an independent clause.

The early records of the city have disappeared, and the story of its
first years can no longer be reconstructed.
The situation is perilous, but there is still one chance of escape.

  1. Do not join independent clauses by a comma.
    If two or more clauses, grammatically complete and not joined by a
    conjunction, are to form a single compound sentence, the proper mark
    of punctuation is a semicolon.

Stevenson’s romances are entertaining; they are full of exciting
adventures.
It is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark.

  1. Do not break sentences in two.
    In other words, do not use periods for commas.

I met them on a Cunard liner several years ago. Coming home from
Liverpool to New York.
He was an interesting talker. A man who had traveled all over the
world, and lived in half a dozen countries.
Again and again he called out. No reply.

  1. A participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer to
    the grammatical subject.

Walking slowly down the road, he saw a woman accompanied by two
children.
He saw a woman, accompanied by two children, walking slowly down the
road.

  1. Divide words at line-ends, in accordance with their formation and
    pronunciation.

a. Divide the word according to its formation:
know-ledge (not knowl-edge); Shake-speare (not Shakes-peare);
de-scribe (not des-cribe); atmo-sphere (not atmos-phere);
b. Divide “on the vowel:”
edi-ble (not ed-ible); propo-sition; ordi-nary; espe-cial; reli-gious;
oppo-nents; regu-lar; classi-fi-ca-tion (three divisions possible);
deco-rative; presi-dent;
c. Divide between double letters, unless they come at the end of the
simple form of the word:
Apen-nines; Cincin-nati; refer-ring; but tell-ing.

Stagecoach drivers in the Old West needed a person to literally “ride
shotgun.” The passenger would carry a shotgun in order to scare off
robbers who might want to attack them, according to?Reader’s Digest.

The landlord is putting the screws on to get her out of the house.

根据美国杂志《读者文摘》的文章显示,过去在美国西部赶马车的人需要有人在旅行途中保驾护航。副驾驶座上的人要手持猎枪来吓退想要攻击马车的强盗。

Read the riot act  提出警告,加以申斥

Highway robbery真的是抢劫

Tommy’s mother read him the riot act when he broke the window by playing
basketball in the house.

Most people would agree that paying $10 for your favorite cup of coffee
is highway robbery. But the original definition of highway robbery once
meant literally robbing travelers on or near the highway. The first
known usage of the phrase was in 1611.

When Josh was caught cheating during the exam, the teacher read him the
riot act

多数人会认同一杯可口的咖啡要价10美元(68元人民币)是highway
robbery(敲竹杠)。但是highway
robbery原来的意思就是在公路上或公路附近抢劫旅客。这个短语的使用最早见于1611年。

 

Painting the town red源自醉鬼恶行

Ring the changes 变换说或做的方式

For you and your crew, “painting the town red” probably means getting
glammed up for a fun night of drinks and dancing. However, the phrase
originates from a night out that makes dancing on the bar seem tame.

Kelly enjoys ringing the changes and her apartment is decorated very
often.

对你和你的小伙伴来说,painting the town
red的意思是打扮得光鲜亮丽晚上出去喝酒、跳舞。但是,这个短语原来的意思可比在酒吧跳舞劲爆多了。

Paul rings the changes with what he wears every week.

Back in 1837, the Marquis of Waterford went out for a night of drinking
with some of his friends, according to Phrases.org. Afterward, the group
went through the streets of a small English town destroying property.
They broke windows, knocked over flower pots, and damaged door knockers.
But things got really crazy when they got their hands on some red paint
and literally painted the town red, including doors, a tollgate, and a
swan statue.

Sell someone down the river 出卖某人,背叛某人

根据Phrases.org
网站的记载,1837年,沃特福德侯爵和几个朋友夜出喝酒,后来他们经过一个英格兰小镇的街道时开始搞破坏:砸碎窗户、打翻花盆、损坏门环。这些酒鬼拿到了一些红油漆后,局面就开始失控了,酒鬼们把整个镇子都刷成了红色,包括门、一处关卡和一尊天鹅雕像。

Steven criticized the policy of the company in front of the general
manager. He will possibly be sold down the river if not being fired.

Pulling someone’s leg并不总是玩笑

 

You probably think that pulling someone’s leg is all in good fun. After
all, what’s the harm in a little joke, right? This commonly used phrase
that today means playing an innocent joke meant something a lot more
sinister years ago.

Paint the town (red) 痛饮作乐,狂欢庆祝,胡闹

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