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Riding shotgun真的跟猎枪有关

Put the screw on 施加压力,强迫

The Elements of Style

“Riding shotgun” is the ideal place to ride during on a road trip. But
in the Old West, the person sitting in the passenger seat was required
to do a whole lot more than find the perfect radio station.

Beth’s mother puts the screw on her and hopes she can get married before

周末查阅了下William Strunk, Jr.的The Elements of


Eddie puts the screw on himself to study hard so as to enter his ideal

Chapter1:Elementary Rules of Usage

  1. Form the possessive singular of nouns with ‘s.

Charles’s friend
Burns’s poems
the witch’s malice

But such forms as Achilles’ heel, Moses’ laws, Isis’ temple are commonly
replaced by:

the heel of Achilles
the laws of Moses
the temple of Isis

  1. In a series of three or more terms with a single conjunction, use a
    comma after each term except the last.

red, white, and blue
honest, energetic, but headstrong
He opened the letter, read it, and made a note of its contents.

  1. Enclose parenthetic expressions between commas.

The best way to see a country, unless you are pressed for time, is
to travel on foot.
In 1769, when Napoleon was born, Corsica had but recently been
acquired by France.
Nether Stowey, where Coleridge wrote The Rime of the Ancient
, is a few miles from Bridgewater.

  1. Place a comma before and or but introducing an independent clause.

The early records of the city have disappeared, and the story of its
first years can no longer be reconstructed.
The situation is perilous, but there is still one chance of escape.

  1. Do not join independent clauses by a comma.
    If two or more clauses, grammatically complete and not joined by a
    conjunction, are to form a single compound sentence, the proper mark
    of punctuation is a semicolon.

Stevenson’s romances are entertaining; they are full of exciting
It is nearly half past five; we cannot reach town before dark.

  1. Do not break sentences in two.
    In other words, do not use periods for commas.

I met them on a Cunard liner several years ago. Coming home from
Liverpool to New York.
He was an interesting talker. A man who had traveled all over the
world, and lived in half a dozen countries.
Again and again he called out. No reply.

  1. A participial phrase at the beginning of a sentence must refer to
    the grammatical subject.

Walking slowly down the road, he saw a woman accompanied by two
He saw a woman, accompanied by two children, walking slowly down the

  1. Divide words at line-ends, in accordance with their formation and

a. Divide the word according to its formation:
know-ledge (not knowl-edge); Shake-speare (not Shakes-peare);
de-scribe (not des-cribe); atmo-sphere (not atmos-phere);
b. Divide “on the vowel:”
edi-ble (not ed-ible); propo-sition; ordi-nary; espe-cial; reli-gious;
oppo-nents; regu-lar; classi-fi-ca-tion (three divisions possible);
deco-rative; presi-dent;
c. Divide between double letters, unless they come at the end of the
simple form of the word:
Apen-nines; Cincin-nati; refer-ring; but tell-ing.

Stagecoach drivers in the Old West needed a person to literally “ride
shotgun.” The passenger would carry a shotgun in order to scare off
robbers who might want to attack them, according to?Reader’s Digest.

The landlord is putting the screws on to get her out of the house.


Read the riot act  提出警告,加以申斥

Highway robbery真的是抢劫

Tommy’s mother read him the riot act when he broke the window by playing
basketball in the house.

Most people would agree that paying $10 for your favorite cup of coffee
is highway robbery. But the original definition of highway robbery once
meant literally robbing travelers on or near the highway. The first
known usage of the phrase was in 1611.

When Josh was caught cheating during the exam, the teacher read him the
riot act



Painting the town red源自醉鬼恶行

Ring the changes 变换说或做的方式

For you and your crew, “painting the town red” probably means getting
glammed up for a fun night of drinks and dancing. However, the phrase
originates from a night out that makes dancing on the bar seem tame.

Kelly enjoys ringing the changes and her apartment is decorated very

对你和你的小伙伴来说,painting the town

Paul rings the changes with what he wears every week.

Back in 1837, the Marquis of Waterford went out for a night of drinking
with some of his friends, according to Phrases.org. Afterward, the group
went through the streets of a small English town destroying property.
They broke windows, knocked over flower pots, and damaged door knockers.
But things got really crazy when they got their hands on some red paint
and literally painted the town red, including doors, a tollgate, and a
swan statue.

Sell someone down the river 出卖某人,背叛某人


Steven criticized the policy of the company in front of the general
manager. He will possibly be sold down the river if not being fired.

Pulling someone’s leg并不总是玩笑


You probably think that pulling someone’s leg is all in good fun. After
all, what’s the harm in a little joke, right? This commonly used phrase
that today means playing an innocent joke meant something a lot more
sinister years ago.

Paint the town (red) 痛饮作乐,狂欢庆祝,胡闹