有的是经历青春期的男男女女都曾认为莫名的心理在体内躁动,以至有些人会不经常冲动而做出离经叛道的事。那是因为青少年人是肌体趋向成熟,而大脑发育尚未跟上的叁个时日。学者表示,对于年轻人面前碰到的非凡健康挑衅,大家的了然还远远非常不够,能做的也还会有繁多。

  二〇一八年上三个月全国高级高校爱尔兰语四六级考试于五月二16日进展,微博辅导24刻钟全程关心,为你带来第一手四六级考试资源音讯。以下为斯拉维尼亚语六级阅读真题:

在伊利诺伊香槟分校雅思中,利弊研商题的考官范文一共给了六篇,如下:

图片 1

  Part Ⅲ Reading Comprehension (40 minutes)

剑4 Test B

Whatever their foibles — door-slamming, grunting, excessive Snapchatting
— teenagers are right about one thing: nobody understands them. This
umbra of non-comprehension takes in not just parents, but doctors,
psychologists, neuroscientists, social scientists, legal experts and
educators.

  Section A

Some people believe that children should be allowed to stay at home
and play until they are six or seven years old. Others believe that it
is important for young children to go to school as soon as possible.

不管他们有怎么样怪癖(摔门、不佳好说话、把过多的年华花在Snapchat上),少男青娥们有一点点是不易的:未有人知情她们。不清楚她们的不只是父母,还会有医务卫生职员、心理学家、神经学家、社会学家、法律学者和教育者。

  Directions: In this section, there is a passage with ten blanks。
You are required to select one word for each blank from a list of
choices given in a word bank following the passage。 Read the passage
through carefully before making your choices。 Each choice in the bank
is identified by a letter。 Please mark the corresponding letter for
each item on Answer Sheet 2 with a single line through the centre。 You
may not use any of the words in the bank more than once。

What do you think are the advantages of attending school from a young
age?

There is surprisingly scant scientific research about the hazy period
between childhood and adulthood in which adolescents exist. As an
editorial in the journal Nature pointed out this month: “A modern
healthcare system without a focus on the unique challenges of
paediatrics or geriatrics would be unthinkable, yet there is no similar
effort on behalf of adolescents.”

  Did Sarah Josepha Hale write “Mary’s Little Lamb,” the eternal
nursery rhyme (儿歌) about girl named Mary with a stubborn lamb? This
is still disputed, but it’s clear that the woman 26 for writing it was
one of America’s most fascinating 27 。 In honor of the poem publication
on May 24,1830, here’s more about the 28 author’s life。

剑5 Test 2

至于青少年所处的在张健年和常年里边这段模糊时代的不利研商出奇地紧缺。正如《自然》(Nature)杂志近些日子的一篇社论提议的那么:“匪夷所思多个今世临床系统会不关怀儿童或老人所拉动的杰出挑衅,但青年未有得到近似的关注。”

  Hale wasn’t just a writer, she was also a 29 social advocate, and
she was particularly 30 with an ideal New England, which she associated
with abundant Thanksgiving meals that she claimed had “a deep moral
influence,” she began a nationwide 31 to have a national holiday
declared that would bring families together while celebrating the 32
festivals。 In 1863, after 17 years of advocacy including letters to
five presidents, Hale got it。 President Abraham Lincoln during the
Civil War, issued a __33__ setting aside the last Thursday in
November for the holiday。

In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for
year between finishing high school and starting university studies.

The term adolescence stems from the Latin adolescere, meaning “to grow
up” but, in many other contexts, it eludes easy definition. The World
Health Organization puts adolescence between the ages of 10 and 19, with
other categories jostling within that complex territory. The UN defines
a youth as aged 15-24, a genre overlapping with “child” (under 18) and
the generic “young people” (10-24).

  The true authorship of “Mary’s Little Lamb” is disputed。 According
to New England Historical Society, Hale wrote only one part of the
poem, but claimed authorship。 Regardless of the author, it seems that
the poem was __34__by a real event。 When young Mary Sawyer was
followed to school by a lamb in 1816, it caused some problems。 A
bystander named John Roulstone wrote a poem about the event, then, at
some point, Hale herself seems to have helped write it。 However, if a
1916 piece by her great-niece is to be trusted, Hale claimed for the
__35__of her life that “Some other people pretended that someone
else wrote the poem”。

Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decide
to do this.

“青少年”这一个词来源于拉丁语adolescere,意思是“成长”,但在广大任何语境下,它不便于定义。世界卫生组织(WHO)把青少年定义为10至19岁,但含有那个纷纷年龄区间的还应该有另外分类。联合国(UN)把青少年定义为15周岁至二十一岁,这与小孩子(18岁以下)以及泛指的“年轻人”(10至贰十二岁)重叠。

  A) campaign I) proclamation

剑9 Test 1

It should not surprise us, then, that there is great variation the world
over — and even within countries — in the ages at which the young are
entrusted with making adult decisions. Laurence Steinberg, a psychology
professor, writes: “A society that tries 12-year-olds who commit serious
crimes as adults because they’re mature enough to ‘know better’ but
prohibits 20-year-olds from buying alcohol because they are too immature
to handle it, is deeply confused about how to treat people in this age
range.”

  B) career J) rectified

Some experts believe that it is better for children to begin learning
a foreign language at primary school rather than secondary school.

因此,大家对此就不应认为意外了:全世界(乃至各国内部)对于青年有力量做出中年人决定的最低年龄限制存在巨大差距。心境学教师Lawrence?StanBerg(Laurence
Steinberg)写道:“大家把壹人犯下严重罪行的十三周岁青年当作大人来审讯,因为她俩已丰盛成熟,应该‘知道什么事情不可能做’了;与此同不常候,大家严令禁止20岁的人买酒,因为他俩还非常不足成熟,不可能明白乙醇:那样二个社会对于如何对待那几个年龄区间的人是感到疑忌的。”

  C) characters K) reputed

Do the advantages of this outweigh the disadvantages?

Biology provides an obvious pointer. Adolescence is thought to begin
with the onset of puberty (sexual development), but patterns of puberty
vary around the world — and within countries — over time. One study
shows that in the mid-19th century, girls in developed countries had
their first period at about 15 or 16 years old. By 2000, this had
dropped to below 13, a trend that has been attributed to better
nutrition and healthcare. Puberty also occurs earlier in boys. Childhood
obesity is thought to be an accelerating factor.

  D) features L) rest

剑10 Test 3

生物学提供了映着重帘的指标。常常以为,青春期(性发育期)初叶时,小孩子就改为了年青人,但发育的规律在世上(以及国家内部)各有不一样。一项商讨显得,19世纪先前年代,发达国家女孩的初次月经年龄大概为15或15虚岁。到三千年,那么些年纪降至12周岁以下,这一方向要归因于硫胺素与治疗的革新。男孩的青春期也提前出现。据信,小孩子肥胖是导致这种景观的三个要素。

  E) fierce M) supposed

Countries are becoming more and more similar because people are able
to buy the same products anywhere in the world.

Flowering bodies, however, are governed by childish brains. Prof
Steinberg points out that the young brain continues maturing into the
mid-20s. Neurodevelopmental changes depend partly on hormones and can
drive pleasure-seeking, risky and impulsive behaviour. Accordingly,
Professor Steinberg extends adolescence’s dominion to between the ages
of 10 and 25.

  F) inspired N) traditional

Do you think this is a positive or negative development?

唯独,正在成熟的肌体由仍处于小孩子阶段的大脑调节着。StanBerg教师建议,大脑要到27周岁左右才生长早熟。神经发育变化在必然水平上取决激素,那些变迁还只怕激情寻求快感、冒险和激动的行事。由此,StanBerg教师将小兄弟的年纪区间延长为10岁至二十五岁。

  G) latter O) versatile

剑10 TestB

By then, of course, young people are already notching up the social
milestones of adulthood: driving, voting, working, living independently,
enlisting in the military, drinking, buying guns, marrying and becoming
parents. Society will have long sexualised them. And for the digitally
connected, the mis-steps of youth are today captured, shared and
archived in perpetuity. That collision of adolescent brains with adult
norms might underlie some of the darker statistics relating to young
people. The leading causes of adolescent death are, respectively, road
accidents, HIV and suicide.

  H) obsessed

Some parents buy their children a large number of toys to play with.

本来,到那时,年轻人早已在做到标识着长大成年人的一件件大事:驾乘、投票、专门的学问、独立生活、参军、吃酒、购买枪支、结婚和生子。社会应该也早已让她们持有了性别意识。对于中年人于数字互联时期的大家来讲,年少时走错的路近些日子会被记录、分享并永恒储存下来。青年的大脑与中年人的科班之间的顶牛,大概从根本上导致了某些与青年相关的较沉重的计算数据。青少年与世长辞的最主因分别是畅通无阻事故、HIV和自杀。

  Section B

What are the advantages and disadvantages for the child of having a
large number of toys.

Adolescent health also deserves specific contemplation because the
habits of youth can become the millstones of adulthood: teens who smoke
cannabis or nicotine, or who abuse alcohol, often become hooked for
life. Mental health issues tend to surface early in adulthood but
afflicted adolescents are mostly diagnosed on the basis of adult
criteria and treated with drugs intended for older patients. When it
comes to understanding adolescents, it is adults who need to grow up.

  Directions: In this section, you are going to read a passage with
ten statements attached to it。 Each statement contains information
given in one of the paragraphs。 Identify the paragraph from which the
information is derived。 You may choose a paragraph more than once。
Each paragraph is marked with a letter。 Answer the question by marking
the corresponding letter on Answer Sheet 2。

青年健康值得特意深思,还因为年轻时的习贯恐怕会化为成年后的肩负:抽大麻、抽烟或无节制饮酒的青少年人平常会毕生成瘾。心情健康难点一再很已经有迹象,但青年病人好些个是依照成年人标准接受会诊的,医疗所运用的药物也是原先针对年纪不小伤者的。在打听青年方面,供给成长的是大人。

  Peer Pressure Has a Positive Side

切切实实范文:

  A。 Parents of teenagers often view their children‘s friends with
something like suspicion。 They worry that the adolescent peer group has
the power to push its members into behavior that is foolish and even
dangerous。 Such wariness is well founded: statistics show, for
example, that a teenage driver with a same-age passenger in the car is
at higher risk of a fatal crash than an adolescent driving alone or with
an adult。

剑4 Test B

  B。 In a 2005 study, psychologist Laurence Steinberg of Temple
University and his co-author, psychologist Margo Gardner, then at
Temple, divided 306 people into three age groups: young adolescents,
with a mean age of 14; older adolescents, with a mean age of 19; and
adults, aged 24 and older。 Subjects played a computerized driving game
in which the player must avoid crashing into a wall that materializes,
without warning, on the roadway。 Steinberg and Gardner randomly
assigned some participants to play alone or with two same-age peers
looking on。

You should spend about 40 minutes on this task.

  C。 Older adolescents scored about 50 percent higher on an index of
risky driving when their peers were in the room—and the driving of early
adolescents was fully twice as reckless when other young teens were
around。 In contrast, adults behaved in similar ways regardless of
whether they were on their own or observed by others。 “The presence of
peers makes adolescents and youth, but not adults, more likely to take
risks,” Steinberg and Gardner concluded。

Write about the following topic:

  D。 Yet in the years following the publication of this study,
Steinberg began to believe that this interpretation did not capture the
whole picture。 As he and other researchers examined the question of why
teens were more apt to take risks in the company of other teenagers,
they came to suspect that a crowd‘s influence need not always be
negative。 Now some experts are proposing that we should take advantage
of the teen brain’s keen sensitivity to the presence of friends and
leverage it to improve education。

Some people believe that children should be allowed to stay at home
and play until they are six or seven years old. Others believe that it
is important for young children to go to school as soon as possible.

  E。 In a 2011 study, Steinberg and his colleagues turned to
functional MRI (磁共振) to investigate how the presence of peers
affects the activity in the adolescent brain。 They scanned the brains
of 40 teens and adults who were playing a virtual driving game designed
to test whether players would brake at a yellow light or speed on
through the crossroad。

What do you think are the advantages of attending school from a young
age?

  F。 The brains of teenagers, but not adults, showed greater
activity in two regions associated with rewards when they were being
observed by same-age peers than when alone。 In other words, rewards
are more intense for teens when they are with peers, which motivates
them to pursue higher-risk experiences that might bring a big payoff
(such as the thrill of just making the light before it turns red)。
But Steinberg suspected this tendency could also have its advantages。
In his latest experiment, published online in August, Steinberg and
his colleagues used a computerized version of a card game called the
Iowa Gambling Task to investigate how the presence of peers affects the
way young people gather and apply information。

Give reasons for your answer and include any relevant examples from your
own knowledge or experience.

  G。 The results: Teens who played the Iowa Gambling Task under the
eyes of fellow adolescents engaged in more exploratory behavior,
learned faster from both positive and negative outcomes, and achieved
better performance on the task than those who played in solitude。 “What
our study suggests is that teenagers learn more quickly and more
effectively when their peers are present than when they‘re on their
own,” Steinberg says。 And this finding could have important
implications for how we think about educating adolescents。

Write at least 250 words.

  H。 Matthew D。 Lieberman, a social cognitive neuroscientist at the
University of California, Los Angeles, and author of the 2013 book
Social: Why Our Brains Are Wired to Connect, suspects that the human
brain is especially adept at learning socially salient information。 He
points to a classic 2004 study in which psychologists at Dartmouth
College and Harvard University used functional MRI to track brain
activity in 17 young men as they listened to descriptions of people
while concentrating on either socially relevant cues (for example,
trying to form an impression of a person based on the description) or
more socially neutral information (such as noting the order of details
in the description)。 The descriptions were the same in each
condition, but people could better remember these statements when given
a social motivation。

范文

  I。 The study also found that when subjects thought about and later
recalled descriptions in terms of their informational content, regions
associated with factual memory, such as the medial temporal lobe,
became active。 But thinking about or remembering descriptions in terms
of their social meaning activated the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex—part
of the brain‘s social network—even as traditional memory regions
registered low levels of activity。 More recently, as he reported in a
2012 review, Lieberman has discovered that this region may be part of a
distinct network involved in socially motivated learning and memory。
Such findings, he says, suggest that “this network can be called on to
process and store the kind of information taught in school—potentially
giving students access to a range of untapped mental powers。”

In many places today, children start primary school at around the age of
six or seven. However, because it is more likely now that both parents
work, there is little opportunity for children to stay in their own home
up to that age. Instead, they will probably go to a nursery school when
they are much younger.

  J。 If humans are generally geared to recall details about one
another, this pattern is probably even more powerful among teenagers
who are hyperattentive to social minutiae: who is in, who is out, who
likes whom, who is mad at whom。 Their penchant for social drama is
not—or not only—a way of distracting themselves from their schoolwork or
of driving adults crazy。 It is actually a neurological(神经的)
sensitivity, initiated by hormonal changes。 Evolutionarily speaking,
people in this age group are at a stage in which they can prepare to
find a mate and start their own family while separating from parents and
striking out on their own。 To do this successfully, their brain
prompts them to think and even obsess about others。

While some people think this may be damaging to a child’s development,
or to a child’s relationship with his or her parents, in fact there are
many advantages to having school experience at a young age.

  K。 Yet our schools focus primarily on students as individual
entities。 What would happen if educators instead took advantage of the
fact that teens are powerfully compelled to think in social terms? In
Social, Lieberman lays out a number of ways to do so。 History and
English could be presented through the lens of the psychological drives
of the people involved。 One could therefore present Napoleon in terms
of his desire to impress or Churchill in terms of his lonely
melancholy。 Less inherently interpersonal subjects, such as math,
could acquire a social aspect through team problem solving and peer
tutoring。 Research shows that when we absorb information in order to
teach it to someone else, we learn it more accurately and deeply,
perhaps in part because we are engaging our social cognition。

Firstly, a child will learn to interact with a lot of different people
and some children learn to communicate very early because of this. They
are generally more confident and independent than children who stay at
home with their parents and who are not used to strangers or new
situations. Such children find their first day at school at the age of
six very frightening and this may have a negative effect on how they
learn.

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