Because significant volumes of earth must be displaced to mine coal,
coalmines and the resulting rock waste  can harm the environment.
Furthermore, burning coal releases environmentally harmful chemical
compounds into the air.
Disney has something of a cult following, so it shouldn’t be much of a
surprise that some people want to stay in the entertainment giant’s
theme parks… forever.
15-1 Mining and Mining Waste
Surface mining has resulted in a great deal of damage to the landscape
. Many surface mines have removed acres of vegetation and altered
topographic features , such as hills and valleys, leaving soil
exposed for erosion. Longwall mining, which allows the mine to collapse,
results in widespread land subsidence , or sinking. Coal and rock
waste, often dumped indiscriminately  during surface and
underground mining processes, weathers rapidly, producing acid drainage
. Acid drainage contains sulfur-bearing compounds  that
combine with oxygen in water vapor to form sulfuric acid. In addition,
weathering of coalmine waste can produce alkaline compounds , heavy
metals , and sediments. Acid drainage, alkaline compounds, heavy
metals, and sediment leached from mine waste into groundwater  or
washed away by rainwater can pollute  streams, rivers, and lakes.
As a report in the?Wall Street Journal?has just confirmed, some people
really try to do that – by having loved ones scatter their cremains.
Today, enterprises in many countries must secure government permits
before mining for coal. In the United States, mining companies must
submit plans detailing proposed methods for blasting, road construction,
land reclamation , and waste disposal . New land reclamation
methods, driven by stringent  laws and regulations, require coal
mining companies to restore strip-mined landscapes to nearly premined
15-2 Burning Coal
At Disneyland park in Anaheim, California, and Walt Disney World in Bay
Lake, Florida, it happens so frequently that staff have a special code
to call in when they spot any sign of cremains: “HEPA cleanup.”
The burning of coal produces environmentally harmful emissions. Some
gases produced from burning coal, such as carbon dioxide, are known as
greenhouse gases  because they trap the Earth’s heat like the roof
of a greenhouse and may contribute to global warming . Other
emissions from coal combustion  can lead to air and water
A. Greenhouse Effect 
Staff then come in with a vacuum cleaner equipped with a high-efficiency
particulate air (HEPA) filter, specifically designed for picking up the
very finest particles, and vacuum up the remains, possibly for disposal
into a garbage bin.
Earth absorbs much of the heat energy radiated from the Sun. The planet
then reradiates this heat back into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and
some other gases that are naturally present in the atmosphere prevent
much of the heat from escaping back into space, maintaining Earth at a
temperature that can support life. These gases are known as greenhouse
gases because they trap the Sun’s heat in much the same way as the glass
roof of a botanical greenhouse . However, the immense quantity of
fossil fuels burned during the world’s rapid industrialization 
over the last 200 years has raised levels of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere by about 28 percent. This dramatic increase in atmospheric
carbon dioxide, coupled with continuing depletion  of the world’s
forests, which absorb carbon dioxide, has led many scientists to predict
a heating of the atmosphere on a global scale. Such a global warming
could disrupt  weather patterns, cause
the polar ice caps  to melt, and possibly lead to other
“Human ashes have been spread in flower beds, on bushes and on Magic
Kingdom lawns; outside the park gates and during fireworks displays; on
Pirates of the Caribbean and in the moat underneath the flying elephants
of the Dumbo ride,” the WSJ’s reports.
Today, many industrial countries are working to reduce emissions of
greenhouse gases. One proposal is to establish a system requiring
companies that create greenhouse gases to pay to emit carbon dioxide
above a specified level. This payment could take several forms,
including purchasing the rights to pollute from a company with carbon
dioxide emissions below the specified level; purchasing forests, which
absorb carbon dioxide, and keeping them from being developed; or paying
to upgrade a plant in a developing country, thus lowering that plant’s
carbon dioxide emissions.
Task1What can we do to reduce air pollution? Give examples and details
in you answer.本题选自《常远口语真经2》
B. Acid Rain 
“Most frequently of all, according to custodians and park workers,
they’ve been dispersed throughout the Haunted Mansion, the 49-year-old
attraction featuring an eerie old estate full of imaginary ghosts.”
Another environmental problem is acid rain, which forms from sulfur
contained in coal. As coal burns, the sulfur combines with oxygen in the
air to form sulfur dioxide. As sulfur dioxide is released into the
atmosphere, this compound reacts with atmospheric moisture ,
forming sulfuric acid. This acidic moisture eventually falls back to
Earth in the form of precipitation  known as acid rain.
Environmental studies indicate that acid rain damages crops and forests
as well as streams, lakes, and rivers.
The U.S. Clean Air Act, implemented in 1970 and revised in 1970 and
1990, is the federal law regulating air pollution in the United States.
This legislation has significantly reduced emissions of sulfur oxides,
known as acid gases. For example, the Clean Air Act requires facilities
such as coal-burning power plants to burn low-sulfur coal. High-grade
coals (coals with a higher heating value) generally contain more sulfur
than low-grade coals such as lignite and subbituminous coal. Therefore,
certain processes have been developed to remove sulfur-bearing compounds
from high-grade coal prior to burning. The Clean Air Act also requires
use of pollution-trapping equipment such as air scrubbers 
(devices installed inside plant smokestacks  to remove sulfur
dioxide from coal emissions). In addition, revisions to the Clean Air
Act in 1990 established a system that allows coal-burning power plants
to buy and sell sulfur emission permits with one another. This system
tries to establish a financial incentive  to lower sulfur
emissions by rewarding  power plants that reduce emissions below
federal levels. Power plants that cut their sulfur emissions below the
permitted levels can sell permits to burn coal to companies that exceed
federal levels. Companies that reduce emissions reap financial rewards
while polluters must pay an extra cost to pollute.
Human cremains are not actually ashes in the typical sense. During the
cremation process, soft tissue vaporizes under the extreme heat; all
that’s left is calcined bone, which the crematorium crushes into a
C. Fly Ash 
The burning of coal releases ashes known as fly ash into the atmosphere.
Fly ash contains toxic metals  such as arsenic  and cadmium
. In the United States the Clean Air Act requires that fly ash be
removed from coal emissions. As a result, antipollution devices such as
air scrubbers, baghouses , and electrostatic precipitators are use
Because of that extreme heat, any micro-organisms in the body are also
burned away; there’s no public health risk associated with cremains. But
that doesn’t mean Disney wants them scattered around their parks.
d to trap these pollutants. Baghouses work like giant vacuum cleaners,
drawing coal emissions through giant fabric bags that trap the fly ash
inside. Electrostatic precipitators  use discharge electrodes
 (electrically charged parts of an electric circuit) to trap ash
particles. In an electrostatic precipitator the electrodes are located
between long, positively charged collection plates. As the fly ash
passes between these collection plates, the discharge electrodes give
each particle a negative charge. These negatively charged particles are
then attracted to and held by the positively charged collection plates.
reduce air pollution减少景况污染
15-3 Clean Coal Technology 
“This type of behavior is strictly prohibited and unlawful,” a Disney
spokesperson told the WSJ. “Guests who attempt to do so will be escorted
Since 1986 the United States government and private industry have been
working together to develop cleaner and more efficient ways to harness
the energy in coal. This joint effort, known as the Clean Coal
Technology Demonstration Program, includes several technologies, such as
fluidized bed coal combustion , furnace sorbent injection ,
and advanced flue-gas desulfurization .
Fluidized bed coal combustion burns coal in a limestone bed that
transfers heat to water, generating steam. This steam is pressurized and
used to turn a turbine shaft, which subsequently drives an electric
generator. The limestone absorbs sulfur dioxide emitted by the coal,
thus reducing the amount of acid gases released during combustion.
create sufficient oxygen创建氧气
In fact, in most of the United States, scattering cremains on private
property without permission is considered a misdemeanor, and can incur a
penalty such as a fine or community service.
A process called furnace sorbent injection removes acid gas from coal
emissions at less cost than expensive scrubbers. A sorbent is a highly
absorbent material, such as powdered limestone . It is injected
into furnaces, where the powdered limestone reacts with the acid gases
emitted by the burning coal. The used powder is siphoned away through
the furnace outtake and is captured (with fly ash) in a baghouse or
remove harmful chemicals from soil 收缩土壤中损害的化学物质
A process called advanced flue-gas desulfurization also removes acid gas
from burning coal without expensive scrubbers. Emissions from burning
coal are piped into a container called an absorber, where the acid gases
react with an absorbing solution (such as a mixture of lime, water, and
oxygen). This reaction forms gypsum, a soft white mineral valuable as an
ingredient  in cement.
absorb carbon dioxide →reduce the greenhouses吸取二氧化碳，裁减温室气体
This includes amusement parks, museums, and sports stadiums, as one man
found out to his detriment when he dumped his mother’s cremains on a
sports field in 2005. Although it is worth noting that he was arrested
and charged with defiant trespass, not reckless mum-scattering.
NOTES TO THE TEXT
∴reduce global warming 抑制全球变暖
 environmental issues：情形难点
But there are also places where it is legal to scatter cremains in the
US. National parks are allowed, if the bereaved have the relevant
permit, and make sure to scatter away from high-traffic areas, such as
hiking trails and playgrounds.
 rock waste：废石
reduce carbon emissions →the greener environment减少碳排泄，绿化境况
cool your home in the summer夏天给房内温度下落
The sea is also permitted, but only at a distance of at least three
nautical miles from land, according to Environmental Protection Agency
 topographic features：地形特点
act as windbreaks in winter→save energy from
∴don’t need air conditioner无需空气调节器
Similar laws exist in Australia and in the United Kingdom, where it is
lawful to scatter cremains on public or private land, provided you have
the relevant permission from the landowner, local parks authority, or
government environmental agency.
 acid drainage：中性（neutrality）排水
It’s worth noting that the phosphates in the calcined bone dust are a
natural fertilizer – in fact, animal bone is sometimes used this way –
which can have an environmental impact by stimulating plant growth.
 sulfur-bearing compounds：含硫混合物
 alkaline compounds：中性（neutrality）混合物
On the other hand, human cremains can have a high salt content, and also
have high pH, which can be toxic to certain plants. In 2008, the Jane
Austen’s House Museum in England banned people from scattering cremains
in the garden of the beloved author’s former home, noting, among other
reasons, that doing so “is of no benefit to the garden!”
 heavy metals：重金属
Personally speaking,I will plant trees to reduce air pollution.
The first one is toplant trees as much as we want if we want to save
our planet. Trees not only create sufficient oxygen for us to breath and
remove harmful chemicals from the soil, but also absorb carbon dioxide
emission and thus help reduce the greenhouses leading to global warming.
And while there are products that help you convert your loved one’s
cremains into a beautiful plant, you can’t just go putting them anywhere
willy-nilly either; as the Bront? Society noted in 2013, the impact of
mourners planting memorial plants on the moors had been destroying the
Secondly,trees can help save energy. And saving energy can reduce
carbon emissions. Since most energy sources require burning fossil
fuels, the less energy you use, the greener the environment you have.
For instance, if you plant trees in the right place around buildings,
trees can help cool your home in the summer. In the winter, trees can
act as windbreaks for your home and will help you save energy from
heating. Then, you don’t need air conditioners running 24 hours a day!
 land reclamation：采区复田
If nothing else, it’s also just terribly impolite to leave your loved
one’s powdered bones where someone else might have to clean them up.
 waste disposal：废石管理
And do you really want them to end up in a dustbin?
 greenhouse 瓦斯es ：温室气体
 global warming：全球变暖
Taking public transportation, driving less car少开车
 coal combustion：煤的焚烧
People should reduce the amount of time you spend in the car. Carpool or
use public transportation like subway whenever you can. For shorter
distances, walk or ride your bike to do errands. If most people avoid
driving one or two days a week for a year, the air pollution would be
greatly reduced. So we should raise people’s awareness of environment
issue by telling them if they travel through subway, car, or bikes, the
environment will become better and better.
 greenhouse effect：温室效应
 botanical greenhouse：植物的大棚
Personally speaking,Ithink the following should be done to reduce
First, we should drive less and use public transportation like buses and
subways when we can. It’s such a waste or energy and space to drive when
there’re only one or two people in the car. Buses and subways on the
other hand can move dozens even hundreds of people way more efficiently
 polar ice caps：极的冰帽
Second, I think we should plant more trees. Trees and other plants
produce oxygen we breathe. We don’t have enough of them since cities are
filled with concrete buildings these days. Trees also make our cities
more beautiful, so I think the more trees we plant, the better.
 acid rain：酸雨
 atmospheric moisture ：大气的水分
 air scrubbers：空气冲洗器
 financial incentive：财务表彰
Question 1.What is one of the major problems faced by the country you
live in? And what would you suggestion to cope with thisproblem. Please
include specific details in your
 fly ash：飘尘，飞尘
 toxic metals：有害的金属
Personally speaking,the one of major problems faced by the country
is the air pollution. And there are many ways to solve this problem such
as encouraging public transportation, saving energy, and planting trees.
And let’s take a look at how planting trees can clear the air we
The first reason is thattrees are the lungs of our earth. We should
plant trees as many as we can if we want to save our planet. Trees not
only create sufficient oxygen for us to breath and remove harmful
chemicals from the soil, but also absorb carbon dioxide emission and
thus help reduce the greenhouse gases leading to global warming.