图片 1

Because significant volumes of earth must be displaced to mine coal,
coalmines and the resulting rock waste [2] can harm the environment.
Furthermore, burning coal releases environmentally harmful chemical
compounds into the air.

2017-04-02  常远托福

Disney has something of a cult following, so it shouldn’t be much of a
surprise that some people want to stay in the entertainment giant’s
theme parks… forever.

15-1 Mining and Mining Waste

微信民众号:changyuantoefl

迪士尼有狂喜的观者,所以假如您听他们讲某人想留在迪士尼主旨公园……直到永世,也不用认为欣喜。

Surface mining has resulted in a great deal of damage to the landscape
[3]. Many surface mines have removed acres of vegetation and altered
topographic features [4], such as hills and valleys, leaving soil
exposed for erosion. Longwall mining, which allows the mine to collapse,
results in widespread land subsidence [5], or sinking. Coal and rock
waste, often dumped indiscriminately [6] during surface and
underground mining processes, weathers rapidly, producing acid drainage
[7]. Acid drainage contains sulfur-bearing compounds [8] that
combine with oxygen in water vapor to form sulfuric acid. In addition,
weathering of coalmine waste can produce alkaline compounds [8], heavy
metals [9], and sediments. Acid drainage, alkaline compounds, heavy
metals, and sediment leached from mine waste into groundwater [10] or
washed away by rainwater can pollute [11] streams, rivers, and lakes.

图片 2

As a report in the?Wall Street Journal?has just confirmed, some people
really try to do that – by having loved ones scatter their cremains.

Today, enterprises in many countries must secure government permits
before mining for coal. In the United States, mining companies must
submit plans detailing proposed methods for blasting, road construction,
land reclamation [12], and waste disposal [13]. New land reclamation
methods, driven by stringent [14] laws and regulations, require coal
mining companies to restore strip-mined landscapes to nearly premined
conditions.

Environment 情形难点

《华尔街晨报》的一篇广播发表以来认证,某人实在如此做了——他们让家属把团结的骨灰洒在迪士尼乐园。

15-2 Burning Coal

▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼▼

At Disneyland park in Anaheim, California, and Walt Disney World in Bay
Lake, Florida, it happens so frequently that staff have a special code
to call in when they spot any sign of cremains: “HEPA cleanup.”

The burning of coal produces environmentally harmful emissions. Some
gases produced from burning coal, such as carbon dioxide, are known as
greenhouse gases [15] because they trap the Earth’s heat like the roof
of a greenhouse and may contribute to global warming [16]. Other
emissions from coal combustion [17] can lead to air and water
pollution.

背景介绍:意况难点一向是托福独立口语的广泛话题,一般能够想到的环境保护措施有少驾驶,种种树;汽车的尾部气的削减可直改革空气品质,但种树的好处是什么样呢?
因为植物光合营用能够接收二氧化碳,净化空气。别的,种树能够协理缩减财富的费用,进而直接地扶助减弱空气污源,请看看下边包车型客车全能思路。

在马里南宁阿纳海姆的迪士尼乐园和佛罗里资阳海湾湖的Walter迪士尼乐园,撒骨灰的意况一再爆发,由此当专业职员开掘别的关于骨灰的征象时,就能够发送特殊代码“HEPA
cleanup”进行上报。

A. Greenhouse Effect [18]

▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲▲

Staff then come in with a vacuum cleaner equipped with a high-efficiency
particulate air (HEPA) filter, specifically designed for picking up the
very finest particles, and vacuum up the remains, possibly for disposal
into a garbage bin.

Earth absorbs much of the heat energy radiated from the Sun. The planet
then reradiates this heat back into the atmosphere. Carbon dioxide and
some other gases that are naturally present in the atmosphere prevent
much of the heat from escaping back into space, maintaining Earth at a
temperature that can support life. These gases are known as greenhouse
gases because they trap the Sun’s heat in much the same way as the glass
roof of a botanical greenhouse [19]. However, the immense quantity of
fossil fuels burned during the world’s rapid industrialization [20]
over the last 200 years has raised levels of carbon dioxide in the
atmosphere by about 28 percent. This dramatic increase in atmospheric
carbon dioxide, coupled with continuing depletion [21] of the world’s
forests, which absorb carbon dioxide, has led many scientists to predict
a heating of the atmosphere on a global scale. Such a global warming
could disrupt [22] weather patterns, cause

例题

然后就能够有职员和工人带着特别用于拾取最细小颗粒的高速微粒空气过滤立式吸尘器(HEPA),吸走疑似骨灰的物质——末了恐怕倒进了垃圾箱。

the polar ice caps [23] to melt, and possibly lead to other
environmental problems.

贰零壹肆年011月二日北美口语真题

“Human ashes have been spread in flower beds, on bushes and on Magic
Kingdom lawns; outside the park gates and during fireworks displays; on
Pirates of the Caribbean and in the moat underneath the flying elephants
of the Dumbo ride,” the WSJ’s reports.

Today, many industrial countries are working to reduce emissions of
greenhouse gases. One proposal is to establish a system requiring
companies that create greenhouse gases to pay to emit carbon dioxide
above a specified level. This payment could take several forms,
including purchasing the rights to pollute from a company with carbon
dioxide emissions below the specified level; purchasing forests, which
absorb carbon dioxide, and keeping them from being developed; or paying
to upgrade a plant in a developing country, thus lowering that plant’s
carbon dioxide emissions.

Task1What can we do to reduce air pollution? Give examples and details
in you answer.本题选自《常远口语真经2》

《华尔街晚报》的通信称:“人类的骨灰被洒在花圃、松木丛和美妙王国的绿茵上,洒在园林业大学门外和烟火表演处,洒在马尔马拉海盗园区和小飞象下边的护城河里。”

B. Acid Rain [24]

题干

“Most frequently of all, according to custodians and park workers,
they’ve been dispersed throughout the Haunted Mansion, the 49-year-old
attraction featuring an eerie old estate full of imaginary ghosts.”

Another environmental problem is acid rain, which forms from sulfur
contained in coal. As coal burns, the sulfur combines with oxygen in the
air to form sulfur dioxide. As sulfur dioxide is released into the
atmosphere, this compound reacts with atmospheric moisture [25],
forming sulfuric acid. This acidic moisture eventually falls back to
Earth in the form of precipitation [26] known as acid rain.
Environmental studies indicate that acid rain damages crops and forests
as well as streams, lakes, and rivers.

您哪些减少空气污染?

“依照管理人士和花园工人的布道,最常见的是,骨灰被洒在鬼屋的依次角落——鬼屋建成已有49年,里面有各个想象出来的Smart鬼魅。”

The U.S. Clean Air Act, implemented in 1970 and revised in 1970 and
1990, is the federal law regulating air pollution in the United States.
This legislation has significantly reduced emissions of sulfur oxides,
known as acid gases. For example, the Clean Air Act requires facilities
such as coal-burning power plants to burn low-sulfur coal. High-grade
coals (coals with a higher heating value) generally contain more sulfur
than low-grade coals such as lignite and subbituminous coal. Therefore,
certain processes have been developed to remove sulfur-bearing compounds
from high-grade coal prior to burning. The Clean Air Act also requires
use of pollution-trapping equipment such as air scrubbers [27]
(devices installed inside plant smokestacks [28] to remove sulfur
dioxide from coal emissions). In addition, revisions to the Clean Air
Act in 1990 established a system that allows coal-burning power plants
to buy and sell sulfur emission permits with one another. This system
tries to establish a financial incentive [29] to lower sulfur
emissions by rewarding [30] power plants that reduce emissions below
federal levels. Power plants that cut their sulfur emissions below the
permitted levels can sell permits to burn coal to companies that exceed
federal levels. Companies that reduce emissions reap financial rewards
while polluters must pay an extra cost to pollute.

图片 3

Human cremains are not actually ashes in the typical sense. During the
cremation process, soft tissue vaporizes under the extreme heat; all
that’s left is calcined bone, which the crematorium crushes into a
powder.

C. Fly Ash [31]

图片 4

人类的骨灰其实而不是杰出意义上的灰烬。在火葬进度中,软组织在非常的热条件下蒸发,剩下的便是煅烧过的骨头,火葬场将其压碎成粉末。

The burning of coal releases ashes known as fly ash into the atmosphere.
Fly ash contains toxic metals [32] such as arsenic [33] and cadmium
[34]. In the United States the Clean Air Act requires that fly ash be
removed from coal emissions. As a result, antipollution devices such as
air scrubbers, baghouses [35], and electrostatic precipitators are use

万能思路

Because of that extreme heat, any micro-organisms in the body are also
burned away; there’s no public health risk associated with cremains. But
that doesn’t mean Disney wants them scattered around their parks.

d to trap these pollutants. Baghouses work like giant vacuum cleaners,
drawing coal emissions through giant fabric bags that trap the fly ash
inside. Electrostatic precipitators [36] use discharge electrodes
[37] (electrically charged parts of an electric circuit) to trap ash
particles. In an electrostatic precipitator the electrodes are located
between long, positively charged collection plates. As the fly ash
passes between these collection plates, the discharge electrodes give
each particle a negative charge. These negatively charged particles are
then attracted to and held by the positively charged collection plates.

reduce air pollution减少景况污染

鉴于经过极其高温,尸体里的别的原生生物都被烧掉了,由此骨灰不会导致公私卫生风险。但那并不表示迪士尼不介意园区里洒满骨灰。

15-3 Clean Coal Technology [38]

图片 5

“This type of behavior is strictly prohibited and unlawful,” a Disney
spokesperson told the WSJ. “Guests who attempt to do so will be escorted
off property.”

Since 1986 the United States government and private industry have been
working together to develop cleaner and more efficient ways to harness
the energy in coal. This joint effort, known as the Clean Coal
Technology Demonstration Program, includes several technologies, such as
fluidized bed coal combustion [39], furnace sorbent injection [40],
and advanced flue-gas desulfurization [41].

1.photosynthesis树木的光协作用

“这种作为是被严格禁止的,何况是私行的,”迪士尼的一名发言人告诉《华尔街晚报》,“试图这样做的旅客将被驱逐出园区。”

Fluidized bed coal combustion burns coal in a limestone bed that
transfers heat to water, generating steam. This steam is pressurized and
used to turn a turbine shaft, which subsequently drives an electric
generator. The limestone absorbs sulfur dioxide emitted by the coal,
thus reducing the amount of acid gases released during combustion.

create sufficient oxygen创建氧气

In fact, in most of the United States, scattering cremains on private
property without permission is considered a misdemeanor, and can incur a
penalty such as a fine or community service.

A process called furnace sorbent injection removes acid gas from coal
emissions at less cost than expensive scrubbers. A sorbent is a highly
absorbent material, such as powdered limestone [42]. It is injected
into furnaces, where the powdered limestone reacts with the acid gases
emitted by the burning coal. The used powder is siphoned away through
the furnace outtake and is captured (with fly ash) in a baghouse or
electrostatic precipitator.

remove harmful chemicals from soil 收缩土壤中损害的化学物质

骨子里,在U.S.民代表大会部所在,未经许可将骨灰洒在私有财产上被视为轻罪,会被定罪罚款或社区服务。

A process called advanced flue-gas desulfurization also removes acid gas
from burning coal without expensive scrubbers. Emissions from burning
coal are piped into a container called an absorber, where the acid gases
react with an absorbing solution (such as a mixture of lime, water, and
oxygen). This reaction forms gypsum, a soft white mineral valuable as an
ingredient [42] in cement.

absorb carbon dioxide →reduce the greenhouses吸取二氧化碳,裁减温室气体

This includes amusement parks, museums, and sports stadiums, as one man
found out to his detriment when he dumped his mother’s cremains on a
sports field in 2005. Although it is worth noting that he was arrested
and charged with defiant trespass, not reckless mum-scattering.

NOTES TO THE TEXT

∴reduce global warming 抑制全球变暖

那几个私有财产包罗游乐园、博物院和球馆。二〇〇六年,一名男士将她老妈的骨灰撒在运动场上后,遭到了控诉。可是值得注意的是,他被抓捕是因为私下侵入,实际不是倒塌骨灰。

[1] environmental issues:情形难点

2.save energy精减能源消耗

But there are also places where it is legal to scatter cremains in the
US. National parks are allowed, if the bereaved have the relevant
permit, and make sure to scatter away from high-traffic areas, such as
hiking trails and playgrounds.

[2] rock waste:废石

reduce carbon emissions →the greener environment减少碳排泄,绿化境况

但在美利坚联邦合众国也是有部分地点允许撒骨灰。借使丧失亲朋好朋友的人有连带的许可证,则可以将其骨灰留在国家公园里,只要确认保障远隔人工早产量大的地点,如远足小径和文化馆。

[3] landscape:景观,景色

cool your home in the summer夏天给房内温度下落

The sea is also permitted, but only at a distance of at least three
nautical miles from land, according to Environmental Protection Agency
guidelines.

[4] topographic features:地形特点

act as windbreaks in winter→save energy from
heating冬辰得以回草,缩短供暖

基于U.S.A.遇到珍贵局的点拨原则,大公里也是同意的,但相距陆地至少要三公里。

[5] subsidence:沉陷,下沉

∴don’t need air conditioner无需空气调节器

Similar laws exist in Australia and in the United Kingdom, where it is
lawful to scatter cremains on public or private land, provided you have
the relevant permission from the landowner, local parks authority, or
government environmental agency.

[6] indiscriminately:无异地

图片 6

澳洲和United Kingdom也存在类似的法则,只要您获得土地全体者、本地公园管理局或政党景况部门的相干许可,在国有或亲信土地上撒骨灰是合法的。

[7] acid drainage:中性(neutrality)排水

图片 7

It’s worth noting that the phosphates in the calcined bone dust are a
natural fertilizer – in fact, animal bone is sometimes used this way –
which can have an environmental impact by stimulating plant growth.

[8] sulfur-bearing compounds:含硫混合物

仿照效法答案

值得注意的是,骨质高温残留物中的铝酸盐是一种自然肥料——事实上,动物骨骼有时就能够高温管理后用作肥料——能够激发植物生长进而对情状产生有利影响。

[8] alkaline compounds:中性(neutrality)混合物

图片 8

On the other hand, human cremains can have a high salt content, and also
have high pH, which can be toxic to certain plants. In 2008, the Jane
Austen’s House Museum in England banned people from scattering cremains
in the garden of the beloved author’s former home, noting, among other
reasons, that doing so “is of no benefit to the garden!”

[9] heavy metals:重金属

Personally speaking,I will plant trees to reduce air pollution.

四头,人类骨灰含盐量高,pH值也高,那对少数植物恐怕是有害的。二零零六年,英格兰的简·奥斯汀故居博物馆禁止大家在诗人故居的庄园里分布骨灰,并列出了一多种原因,在那之中一条是,那样做“对园林未有其他收益”。

[10] groundwater:地下水,潜水

The first one is toplant trees as much as we want if we want to save
our planet. Trees not only create sufficient oxygen for us to breath and
remove harmful chemicals from the soil, but also absorb carbon dioxide
emission and thus help reduce the greenhouses leading to global warming.

And while there are products that help you convert your loved one’s
cremains into a beautiful plant, you can’t just go putting them anywhere
willy-nilly either; as the Bront? Society noted in 2013, the impact of
mourners planting memorial plants on the moors had been destroying the
local ecosystems.

[11] pollute:污染

Secondly,trees can help save energy. And saving energy can reduce
carbon emissions. Since most energy sources require burning fossil
fuels, the less energy you use, the greener the environment you have.
For instance, if you plant trees in the right place around buildings,
trees can help cool your home in the summer. In the winter, trees can
act as windbreaks for your home and will help you save energy from
heating. Then, you don’t need air conditioners running 24 hours a day!

就算如此有些服务项目能够扶助您将所爱之人的骨骼造成美貌的植物,但你也不可能随意将它们放在有些位置;正如白朗蒂组织在二零一三年所提议的这样,在荒野上栽植回顾植物的哀悼者带来的负面影响正在毁灭本地的生态系统。

[12] land reclamation:采区复田

图片 9

If nothing else, it’s also just terribly impolite to leave your loved
one’s powdered bones where someone else might have to clean them up.

[13] waste disposal:废石管理

图片 10

哪怕不挂念别的,将亲戚的骨灰撒在须求定期清理的地点也很不礼貌。

[14] stringent:严俊的,必须听从的

越来越多理由

And do you really want them to end up in a dustbin?

[15] greenhouse 瓦斯es :温室气体

图片 11

难道你确实愿意她们最后走入垃圾箱吗?

[16] global warming:全球变暖

Taking public transportation, driving less car少开车

[17] coal combustion:煤的焚烧

People should reduce the amount of time you spend in the car. Carpool or
use public transportation like subway whenever you can. For shorter
distances, walk or ride your bike to do errands. If most people avoid
driving one or two days a week for a year, the air pollution would be
greatly reduced. So we should raise people’s awareness of environment
issue by telling them if they travel through subway, car, or bikes, the
environment will become better and better.

[18] greenhouse effect:温室效应

图片 12

[19] botanical greenhouse:植物的大棚

图片 13

[20] indust

更加多规范答案

rialization:工业化

图片 14

[21] depletion:耗尽,损耗

Personally speaking,Ithink the following should be done to reduce
air pollution.

[22] disrupt:毁坏,瓦解

First, we should drive less and use public transportation like buses and
subways when we can. It’s such a waste or energy and space to drive when
there’re only one or two people in the car. Buses and subways on the
other hand can move dozens even hundreds of people way more efficiently
than cars.

[23] polar ice caps:极的冰帽

Second, I think we should plant more trees. Trees and other plants
produce oxygen we breathe. We don’t have enough of them since cities are
filled with concrete buildings these days. Trees also make our cities
more beautiful, so I think the more trees we plant, the better.

[24] acid rain:酸雨

图片 15

[25] atmospheric moisture :大气的水分

图片 16

[26] precipitation:沉淀

每年托福考试与Environment相关的主题材料和答案

[27] air scrubbers:空气冲洗器

图片 17

[28] smokestacks:烟囱

2012.02.18北美

[29] financial incentive:财务表彰

Question 1.What is one of the major problems faced by the country you
live in? And what would you suggestion to cope with thisproblem. Please
include specific details in your
explanation.本题源自《常远新托福口语真经》

[30] rewarding:报酬,奖赏

主题材料:你所居住的国度面前遭受的注重难点有如何?请详细描述。

[31] fly ash:飘尘,飞尘

思路:根据万能模版,大家得以选用空气污染难点、交通难题。

[32] toxic metals:有害的金属

规范答案:

[33] arsenic:砷

Personally speaking,the one of major problems faced by the country
is the air pollution. And there are many ways to solve this problem such
as encouraging public transportation, saving energy, and planting trees.
And let’s take a look at how planting trees can clear the air we
breathe.

[34] cadmium:镉

The first reason is thattrees are the lungs of our earth. We should
plant trees as many as we can if we want to save our planet. Trees not
only create sufficient oxygen for us to breath and remove harmful
chemicals from the soil, but also absorb carbon dioxide emission and
thus help reduce the greenhouse gases leading to global warming.

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